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The ''Country Life" 















One of the surest signs of the great and ever-growing 
interest in gardening is to be seen in the remarkable 
improvement in the kinds of flowers that are now 
to be had. New plants are being constantly intro- 
duced ; good old plants, of late forgotten, are again 
brought forward, and a lively and wholesome com- 
petitive industry has increased among growers in the 
improvement of garden flowers. In no class of plant 
is this more apparent than among the Roses. The 
increasing desire to deck our gardens pictorially has 
been met by a truly surprising and successful series 
of efforts on the part of raisers, so that now, in 
addition to the older classes of Roses that have been 
available for the last forty years, namely, the Hy- 
brid Perpetuals and Teas, there are already, in great 
variety, quantities of beautiful new Roses of mixed 
parentage for every possible use and purpose. 

The time having come when there is a distinct 
need for a book that shall not only show how Roses 
may best be grown, but how they may be most 
beautifully used, and that will also help the amateur 
to acquire some idea of their nature and relation- 
ships, the present volume, with its large amount 
of illustration, is offered in the hope that it will 


fit usefully into a space as yet unfilled in garden 

In order that the book may be a complete Rose 
manual, I have had the pleasure of working in 
concert with Mr. Edward Mawley, who, in the 
second part, gives the result of his long experience 
as a practical rosarian. 

I have to offer grateful acknowledgment to Miss 
Willmott for a considerable number of excellent 
photographs, and for valuable help in compiling 
the list of Rose species as garden plants ; to Mr. 
W. Robinson for permission to reproduce some 
Rose portraits from former coloured plates in The 
Garden; to Mr. Edward Woodall for the chapter 
on Riviera Garden Roses ; to Mr. E. T. Cook for 
frequent advice and assistance, and to the owners 
of The Garden and Country Life for a number of 
the illustrations. 

Lists of Roses for special purposes are given at 

the end of some of the chapters where it appeared 

that they would be most of use. At the end of the 

book are also descriptive lists, and an alphabetical 

list of the best Roses in all classes. A note of the 

abbreviations used against the Rose names appears 

at p. 149. It will be understood that the lists of 

the Roses given are not complete lists of all the 

Roses known, but careful and well-proved selections 

of the best. 













POMPON ROSES ...... 25 










THE PERGOLA . . .... . 40 
























PRUNING ROSES ....... 99 






EXHIBITING ROSES . . . . . . .121 





INDEX 163 


Climbing Aimee Vibert .... 

Crimson Rambler 

Double Rosa Polyantha .... 

Waltham Rambler 

Branch of Double R. Polyantha . 
Madame Isaac Pereire .... 

Rosa Wichuriana 

Madame Georges Bruant 

R. Rugosa Schneelicht .... 

Rosa Brunoni 


Sulphurea . 


Paul's Single White .... 
Damask Rose and White Lilies . 

Damask Rose 

The White Rose 

The White Rose on a Cottage Porch . 
Bank of Persian and Austrian Briers 
Large-Flowered Banksian Rose . 

Ayrshire Roses 

A Pillar of Bennett's Seedling . 

Rose Celestial 

Madame Plantier 

Rosa Arvensis 

The Garland Rose 

Rosa Altaica 

Burnet Rose 

Double White Scotch Briers 

Pink Scotch Briers 

To face page 4 


„ 6 













Rosa Lutea, single and double 

Scotch Briers 

Single yellow Persian Brier. 

White Pet 

Perle d'Or 

Three Pompon Roses 

Mignonette ...... 

White Pet 

Rosa Macrantha 

Rosa Altaica and R. Tomentosa Woodsiana 

Rosa Arvensis 

Rosa Bracteata ... . . 

Rosa Brunoni 

Rosa Hispida 

R. Macrantha and Paul's Single Scarlet 

R. Calocarpa 

Burnet Rose 

Free-growing Roses on their own roots 

Dundee Rambler 

Free Cluster Roses 

Gloire Lyonnaise 

Gloire Lyonnaise .... 
Ayrshire Rose on Pillar 

A Pillar Rose 

Queen Alexandra 

Climbing Aimee Vieert, Balloon-trained 
Bennett's Seedling, Balloon-trained . 
Rose Pillars in Flower Border . 
Dundee Rambler, Umbrell.a.-trained . 
Paul's Carmine Pillar 
Cluster Roses on a Pergola . 
Pergola Dividing Garden Spaces . 
Felicite-Perpetue on Pergola 
Pergola of Wood Posts on Stone Bases 
Pergola of Rough Larch 
Pergola of Rough Oak .... 
Rosa Brunoni on Pergola 
Rose Pergola in Kitchen Garden 

To face page 



Rose Garlands on a Pergola 

Banksian Rose, Large Flowered . 

Rosa Arvensis, &c., on a Pergola . 

Pergola over a Grass Walk . 

A Range of Rose Arches 

Pergola of Iron Framework . 

Felicite-Perpetue on an Arch 

Crimson Rambler over Hand-Gate 

Diagram of Flower Border, with Rose Arches. 


Ayrshire Rose on Kitchen Garden Arch 
Rose Arches at a Garden Corner 
Sir Joseph Paxton on Iron Arches 
Cluster Rose Felicite-Perpetue 
Wide Arch in Rose Garden . 
Dundee Rambler on an Arch 
Dundee Rambler on a Gateway 
A Rose Screen .... 
William Allen Richardson on a Fence 
Hedge of Pink Rover 
Hedge of Psyche 
Part of an open Rose Screen 
Hedge of Madame Alfred CARRifeRE . 
Garland Rose in a Cottage Garden . 
Garland Rose in the Garden Landscape 
Rose Flora growing into Shrubs . 

Bush Cluster Rose 

Climbing Aimee Vibert over Willows 

Garland Rose over a Yew 

Garland Rose in Catalpa 

Rosa Multiflora on a Bank . 

Roses and Cistuses in the Rock-Garden 

Branch of Dundee Rambler . 

Rose Flora on a Garden House . 

Cluster Roses on a Cottage . 

Bennett's Seedling 

Bennett's Seedling 

Alice Gray and Felicite-Perpetue ' 

To face page 44 

,' 44 

V 44 
M 44 
M 44 
,. 44 
•, 45 

„ ., 46 

„ ., 46 

„ „ 46 

„ „ 46 

„ „ 46 

„ „ 46 

„ ,, 46 

„ „ 46 

•. 47 

,. „ 48 

„ 49 

„ 50 

., 50 

.. ... 51 

-. 52 

•• 53 

n 54 

.. 54 

.. 54 

V 55 
„ ,,56 
» ,. 56 
„ „ 56 

., 56 

„ ., 56 

,. 57 

., ,. 58 

,, „ 58 

„ 58 

., „ 58 



Blush Boursault .... 

Roses on a House Wall . 

Climbing Aimee Vibhrt on a House 

William Allen Richardson on a Verandah 

Garland Rose on a Terrace Wall 

Rose coming over a Wall 

Rose Flora trained over a Wall 

An Ugly Wooden Summer-house . 

Old Farm Buildings 

Garden Arch of Old Apple Limbs 

Dead Apple Trees clothed with Roses 

Dead Apple Trees clothed with Roses 

Climbing Rose on a Farm Shed 

Climbing Rose on Dead Apple Tree 

A Bed of Tea Roses . 

Rose Beds on Lawn . 

A New Rose Garden 

A New Rose Garden 

Approach to a Rose Garden . 

Roses at Edge of Woodland . 

Rose Bushes in Paved Terrace 

Rose Border on Sloping Ground 

Cluster Rose over Terrace Wall 

Plan of Rose Garden 

Rambling Rose in the Wood Edge 

Plan of Rose Garden 

Rambling Rose in Trees at Wood Edge 

Viscountess Folkestone . 

Free Roses Grown as Garlands 

Rose Garden in the Making . 

Garland Rose in Trees . 

Rose Garden among Cypresses 

Tea Roses of the Dijon Class 

Cottage Nosegay of Roses 

Madame Alfred Carriere 

Double White Scotch Briers . 

Bowl of Late September Roses 

Burnet Rose and Scotch Briers 

"o face page 58 

,. „ 58 

„ „ 58 

,. „ 58 

., .. 59 

„ 60 

„ 61 

„ 62 

„ 62 

„ 62 

„ „ 63 

„ „ 64 

„ „ 64 

„ ., 64 

„ „ 6s 

„ 66 

„ 66 

„ 66 

„ 66 

„ 66 

„ 66 

„ 66 

„ „ 67 

„ 68 

„ .., 69 

M 70 

,, 70 

„ 70 

„ 70 

„ 70 

„ 71 

,. 72 

,. 73 

„ 74 

,. 74 

„ 74 

„ 74 

,. 74 



Bowl of Tea Roses .... 

Rose d' Amour 

Rosa Alba 

China Rose 

October Roses and Clematis . 
China Roses and Ivy in October . 
Dundee Rambler in a Jar 
Robert Duncan 


Lady Emily Peel in September 
Climbing Roses on an Italian Villa 
Banksian Rose in Trees . 

Rosa Sinica 


Banksian Rose, double yellow 
Antoine Rivoire .... 

Madame Falcot 

Standard Jules Margottin 
Method of planting Roses 
Pruning of an Exhibition Rose . 
Pruning of a Garden Rose . 
Pruning of a Standard H.P. . 
Lady Mary Fitzwilliam . 

Jean Fernet 

White Baroness 

Catherine Mermet .... 
Viscountess Folkestone ... 
Method of protecting Standard Teas 
Mrs. Edward Mawley 
Exhibition Roses in a Garden 

Ernest Metz 

Hon. Edith Gifford 

Ernest Metz and Madame de Wattevi 

Shelter for Exhibition Roses 

Mrs. Paul 

Madame Jules Grolez 

Madame Charles .... 

Baroness Rothschild 

'o face page 74 

. 74 

, 74 

- 74 

. 74 

, 74 

- 75 

• 76 

: 76 

- 76 

, 77 

, 78 

. 79 

, 80 

. 84 

, 87 

, 88 

, 91 

, 96 

, 106 

, 101 

, 102 

. 106 

, 106 

, 106 

, 107 

, no 

. 115 


, 122 

> 123 

, 124 

, 125 

, 127 







Exhibition Rose Box 

Blooms arranged in Exhibition Box . 
Souvenir de Catherine Guillot . 

Mrs. John Laing 

Anna Olivier 

Mrs. W. J. Grant 

La France and Souvenir d'Elise Vardon 
Augustine Guinoisseau .... 

Mrs. John Laing 

Souvenir d'Elise Vardon 

To face page 130 





. .KY 



New Garden Roses 

One of the most distinct and wholesome effects of 
the spread of garden knowledge and love of flowers 
that has filled the land of late years is the demand for 
good garden Roses. By the term "garden Roses," 
is meant Roses for ordinary garden use, though the 
word has a more exclusive use in the schedules of 
Rose Societies, where it means any Roses other than 
those that are classed as show kinds. In this case 
the more rigid distinction is of use, though in the 
garden it does not concern us in the least, for it 
naturally happens that a grand show Rose is often 
a grand garden Rose also. 

But in the usual jargon of horticulture the word 
"garden Rose" makes one first think of Damask 
and Provence or Cabbage Roses, of Moss Roses, 
of Sweet Brier and Scotch Brier, of Cinnamon Rose 
and Rosa hicida, of China Rose, and of the old climb- 
ing cluster kinds ; in short, of all the older favourites 
that will grow readily in any garden in answer to 
reasonable care and preparation. 


It is only of late years, since an increased recogni- 
tion of the delights of the garden has spread anew 
throughout Britain, and is rapidly extending through 
her colonies, that any notable additions have been 
made to the garden Roses. But our best Rose 
growers have not been slow to perceive how gladly 
their good new garden Roses have been welcomed ; 
the success of these has encouraged further effort, 
and whereas a few years ago lists of new Roses were 
mostly attractive to specialists, and consisted almost 
exclusively of Hybrid Perpetuals and Teas, the new 
Rose lists of to-day include kinds that appeal to every 
one who loves a garden. 

The reason for the older limitation may be easily 
understood, for whereas success in growing the show 
Roses depends, to begin with, either on the possession 
of a good Rose soil, or on those qualifications of 
knowledge, determination, and command of money 
that can create one where it does not exist, the wants 
of the free and "garden " Roses are so comparatively 
modest, they are so accommodating and so little fastidi- 
ous, that with very moderate preparation and encour- 
agement they can be made to succeed in much poorer 
soils. Then it is but few that aspire to the honours 
of the show table, while nearly every one who is 
master of a rood of land now desires to enjoy it as 
a garden. 

So it has come about that one after another, more 
and more garden Roses have come into use and 
have come into being. One of the first of the out- 
siders to be adopted as a garden Rose was the 


Himalayan R. Brunoni or moschata^ with its rambling 
habit, its pale bluish leaves, and its clusters of milk- 
white bloom. Then we took up the type Rosa vndti- 
flora or polyantha, with its vigorous growth and its 
multitudes of Bramble-like sweet-scented flowers. 
Then Turner's Crimson Rambler, a plant of Japanese 
origin, closely related to R. multiflora, took the garden 
world by storm, for its easy cultivation, great speed 
of growth, and its masses of showy crimson bloom. 
Those of us whose eyes are trained to niceties of 
colour-discrimination wish that the tint of this fine 
flower had been just a shade different. Brilliant it 
undoubtedly is, and its noonday brightness gives 
pleasure to a great number of people ; but if it had 
had just a little less of that rank quality that it possesses 
slightly in excess, it would have been a still more 
precious thing in our gardens. The time to see it 
in perfection is when the sun is nearing the horizon, 
and when the yellow light, neutralising the purplish 
taint, gives the flowers of the Rambler just the quality 
that they unfortunately lack ; then and then only they 
show the glorious red that the critical colour-eye 
demands, while at the same time their brilliancy is 

From the type multiflora and some of its hybrids 
as parents on one side have arisen a range of garden 
Roses of inestimable value, most of them of rambling 
habit, comprising the rose-coloured Dawson, the 
charming pink Euphrosyne, the white Thalia and 
the yellow Aglaia, followed by Leuchtstern, a charm- 
ing pillar Rose with pink, red-tinted, white-eyed 


flowers, Waltham Rambler and Eleanor Berkeley, 
and Psyche, rosy-pink slightly tinted yellow. From 
the same source on one side there are also Lion and 
Wallflower, crimsons, and Electra, canary-yellow ; so 
that from R. multiflora we have already all the best 
colourings of which Roses are capable, while we may 
confidently expect many other pretty things. 

The name polyantha for this Rose is as often given 
as multiflora. It seems needless that the two forms 
of the specific name should be almost equally in use, 
the more so that they mean exactly the same thing, 
polyantha being the Greek and multiflora the Latin 
for "many-flowered." Another thing is puzzling to 
the amateur, that the name polyantha is also used for 
the class of quite dwarf Roses, such as Paquerette, 
Mignonette, &c. It would seem more sensible to 
keep the two classes quite apart and to use the name 
polyantha or multiflora only for the rambling kinds 
that retain the free-growing character of the type, 
and to have for the smaller bushy kinds some simple 
name that has no pretension to the character of a 
botanical specific name. A botanical name is in 
any case wrongly used for any class of garden flower 
that is a hybrid or a still later cross, and that no- 
where in nature exists in a single state. These smah 
so-called polyantha Roses should be simply called 
Pompon Roses, then there would be no puzzle or 
ambiguity, and every one would know what was meant, 
whereas if Roses fifteen inches and fifteen feet high 
are both classed 3.s polyantha, unless the popular name 
of each kind is known, there is sure to be confusion. 


These pretty dwarf Cluster Roses are not nearly 
enough used. They have an innocent, childlike 
charm of their own, quite distinct from the more 
grown - up attractiveness of their larger brethren — 
one thinks of such a little bush as Paquerette as 
in place in a child's garden or on a child's grave. 
They have their uses, too, in the Rose garden, in any 
small, dainty spaces, as at the foot of a platform on 
which a sundial rests ; at some point where some 
small beautiful thing could be seen on a level with 
the eye ; in small beds by themselves, or as an 
edging to Roses of slightly larger growth. 

The Himalayan free Roses have been mentioned 
first because it is from them, and from imdtiflora 
especially, that the most important of our newer 
garden Roses of the rambling, cluster-blooming 
kinds have been derived. But before coming to 
some of the older garden Roses, mention must be 
made of the Japanese R. wichuriana and its hybrids. 
This species has introduced to our gardens Roses 
of quite an unusual way of growth. They grow 
fast and are of rambling habit, and though they 
may be trained to pillar shape, their favourite way 
is to trail upon the ground, downward as often 
as not, and to ramble downhill over banks and 
uneven ground ; so that in our gardens we may 
now have quite a new aspect of Rose beauty. They 
hybridise freely, and already we have many beauti- 
ful flowers twice the size of the type, more free- 
blooming, of various tender colourings and charming 
fragrance. A well - devised cross with Perle des 


Jardins (T.) has given us two lovely Roses, Jersey 
Beauty and Gardenia, of dainty yellow colouring ; 
while Evergreen Gem, whose pollen parent was 
the pale yellow Tea Madame Hoste, is quite a 
large flower and deliciously scented. Many a 
garden has uninteresting turf banks between two 
levels. Here is one of the most obvious places 
to use these charming Roses, which are beautiful 
not only for their blossom, but for the close growth 
of their neat glossy foliage. 

Another Japanese Rose, R. rugosa, has also given 
some valuable varieties and hybrids. The beautiful 
white Blanc double de Coubert — whitest Rose of 
any known — has for purity of colour eclipsed the 
older, duller white Madame Georges Bruant, though 
this is still indispensable. Blanc double de Coubert 
is one of the best of Roses, for it blooms the whole 
summer through and well into autumn. Its rich, 
deep green foliage, highly polished though heavily 
reticulated, persisting till late in the year, gives it 
that look of perfect health and vigour that the leaf- 
age of so many Roses lacks in the later summer. The 
danger in rugosa hybrids is the tendency towards a 
strong magenta colouring, such as is suggested by 
the type. But in some of the seedlings a judicious 
choice of pollen parent has amply corrected this, 
as in the charming salmon-pink Conrad F. Meyer. 
This, with the white Scheelicht and the pretty white 
Fimbriata, are among the most charming of the 
rugosa varieties. 

The great hardiness of the rugosas enables them 



to be used in exposed places where many kinds 
of Roses would be crippled or would perish. Their 
strong, bushy growth and somewhat ferocious arma- 
ture of prickles fits them above all other Roses for 
use as hedges, and not hedges of ornament only, but 
effective hedges of enclosure and defence. 

Among the recent garden Roses of great merit is 
the beautiful hybrid Tea Dawn, also Rosa sinica 
Anemone, a little tender, but lovely against a wall ; 
while every year is adding to our garden Roses of 
the loose, half-double Tea class such good things 
as Sulphurea and Corallina, whose names denote 
their colourings. 

Several beautiful species, formerly in botanical 
collections only, have also been brought into use, 
while others have been introduced. Among these 
are R. altaica, described in the chapter on Brier 
Roses. Then we have R. macrantha, with large 
pink blooms, and Andersoni, also with pink flowers ; 
they both make handsome, rather large, bushes. 
Others of the good wild Roses are dealt with in the 
chapter on Species as Garden Roses. 

The work of the late Lord Penzance among the 
Sweet Briers has given us a whole range of garden 
Roses of inestimable value. He sought to give colour 
and size by means of the pollen parent, and so ob- 
tained strong as well as tender colouring and also 
increased size, while retaining the scented leaf and 
the free character of growth. It seems as though 
this eminent lawyer, who in some of the years of 
his mature practice had to put the law in effect in 


decreeing the separation of unhappy human couples, 
had sought mental refreshment in the leisure of his 
latest days by devoting it to the happy marriages of 
Roses. Though his name will ever stand high in the 
records of legal practice, it is doubtful whether in 
years to come it will not be even more widely known 
in connection with the Roses he has left us, the fruits 
of the recreation of his last years of failing strength. 

New Garden Roses 
R. Brunoni — type, single, milk-white, in clusters. 

Double var. „ „ 

R. MULTiFLORA, syn. polyautha — single, white, in large clusters. 
Double „ „ n 

Large flowered, single „ » 

Hybrids — 

Crimson Rambler; crimson. 

Euphrosyne; pink. 

Thalia; white. 

Dawson ; rose. 

Psyche ; pink, salmon-yellow centre. 

Aglaia; yellow-pink. 

Eleanor Berkeley ; pale pink. 

Leuchtstern ; white and pink. 

Waltham Rambler ; white and pink. 

Electra ; canary-yellow. 

Claire Jacquier ; buflf-yellow. 

Queen Alexandra ; deep rose-pink, pale centre. 

Lion ; single crimson. 

Wallflower ; rosy crimson. 
Pompon Roses — 

Paquerette; white. 

Anne Marie de Montravel; white. 

Bouquet parfait ; light and full rose. 

Eugenie Lamesch ; orange, rose-tinted. 




^wM''--^ ' f 




Ldonie Lamesch; copper-red, yellow centre. 

Clothilde Soupert ; rose. 

Georges Pernet ; rose. 

Gloire des Polyantha ; rose and white. 

Mignonette ; pale pink. 

Mosella ; white and yellow. 

Archduchess Elizabeth Marie ; pale yellow. 

Clothilde Phtzer ; white. 
i?. H^iCHURiANA — single, white. 
Hybrids — 

Gardenia ; yellow-white. 

Jersey Beauty ; single, pale yellow. 

Alberic Barbier ; cream-white. 

Manda's Triumph ; double, white. 
R. RUGOSA — Vars. and Hybrids. 

Single, white. 

Blanc double de Coubert ; pure white, double. 

Madame Georges Bruant ; warm-white. 

Fimbriata ; white. 

Mercedes ; rose and white. 

Souvenir de Philemon Cochet ; wb.ite, pink to centre. 

Rose Apples ; pink. 
Sweet Brier {R. rubiginosa) — 

Common, pink. 

Double, red. 

Janet's Pride ; half-double, striped. 
Penzance Hybrids of Sweet Brier, Selection — 

Green Mantle ; pink. 

Anne of Geierstein ; rose. 

Rose Bradwardine; rose. 

Meg Merrilees ; rose. 

Lady Penzance ; copper. 
Various — 

Rosa sinica Anemone ; pink (tender). 

R. moschata nivea ; white. 
Others in the chapter on Species as Garden Roses, p. 28. 


garden roses new and old 

Old Garden Roses 

The first Rose that comes to mind among the old 
favourites is the Cabbage or Provence {R. centifolid). 
No Rose surpasses it in excellence of scent ; it stands 
alone as the sweetest of all its kind, as the type of the 
true Rose smell. The Moss Rose is a variety of the 
Cabbage Rose, with a mossy calyx having its own 
delicious scent, of a more aromatic or cordial char- 
acter. They are so well known that one need say 
no more than that they should never be neglected or 

There are several dwarf Roses — dwarf not in the 
nurseryman's sense, which only means a Rose that is 
not a standard — but actually dwarf in stature and 
correspondingly small in all their parts, that are 
derived from the Provence Rose. These are the 
neat little De Meaux and the still prettier Spong, and 
the charming Moss de Meaux, and their white 

Of the old Provins Roses {R. gallicd) there are a 
number of catalogued varieties. They are mostly 
striped or splashed with rosy and purplish colour. 
I have grown them nearly all, but though certainly 


pretty things, they are of less value in the garden 
than the striped Damask Rosa Mundi. But there is 
an old garden Rose, the Blush gallica, much more 
double, and that grows into very strong bushes, that 
is a good Rose for all gardens. It will put up 
with any treatment. I have it on the top of a dry 
wall where it tumbles over in the prettiest way and 
blooms even more freely than the bushes on the 

These two names, Provence and Provins, for two 
classes of garden Roses of the same kind of growth 
and use, are so much alike that they are one of the 
puzzles that the Rose amateur has to get clear in 
his mind in the earlier stages of his education. 
Provence is the Cabbage Rose {R. centifolia) \ Provins 
is Rosa gallica, the garden kinds being mostly striped ; 
pretty, but not of the first importance ; the best as 
far as my own knowledge and judgment go being 
Reine Blanche (if it be a true gallica^ and the full 
double Blush gallica. 

Near the Provence Rose, in sentiment as well as in 
a sort of natural garden classification, comes the 
Damask, charming also with its delicious though 
fainter scent and its wide-open crimson flowers. 
The Damask Rose, with some of the older Gallicas, 
may be considered the ancestors of many of our 
modern Roses, and though there is no record of 
the earlier pedigrees, those who are old enough to 
remember some of the first Hybrid Perpetuals will 
retain the recollection of some Roses such as Lee's 
Perpetual in which such parentage, probably passing 


through a Portland Rose, of which group there are 
a few named kinds, is fairly traceable. The parti- 
coloured form is a charming bush Rose that should 
be much more used ; it is known by the names 
Rosa Mundi, Cottage Maid, and York and Lancaster. 
The latter name is also claimed for another striped 
Rose of much less value, but the name is so pretty 
and the Rose so charming that most of us think 
they ought to belong to each other, and that there 
is at least no harm in their association for gene- 
ral use. 

The newly found but really old garden Rose now 
called Hebe's Lip, otherwise Reine Blanche, seems to 
belong to the Provins group {gallica). There were 
formerly in old gardens some very dark-coloured 
Damask Roses called Velvet Roses, that are either 
lost or have become rare, as they are now seldom 

An old Rose that used to be in nearly every garden 
and is now but rarely seen is the Cinnamon Rose 
{R. cinnamomea), in some parts of the southern 
counties called the Whitsuntide Rose. The small 
fiat flowers are pretty and have a distinct scent. It 
makes a neat bush of rather upright habit. An 
equally old garden Rose is R. lucida, an American 
species. It is fairly common in old gardens, forming 
rounded bushes, and will grow anywhere even in the 
poorest soils, where the autumn tinted foliage, bright 
yellow and crimson, and the quantities of fiat-shaped 
scarlet hips are very ornamental. The flower is 
single and of a full pink colour. It seems to like 


slight shade, as it shrivels in full sun. There is a 
strong growing garden variety, much more free in 
habit than the type, but it does not make such neat 
bushes. It is remarkable that a Rose so well known 
should have no English name. The double form 
that has been long in English gardens, but has never 
become common, and whose merit is only now be- 
coming recognised, is one of the loveliest of bush 
Roses. It has the pretty old name Rose d'Amour. 
How this Rose of American origin first came to be 
a plant of old English gardens is a question that I 
must leave to be answered by the botanist-antiquary ; 
what chiefly concerns us is that it is one of the most 
delightful things in the garden. 

The Scotch Briers are considered in the chapter 
on Brier Roses, and the newer Sweet Briers in that 
of New Garden Roses, though the old pink single 
Sweet Brier is, of course, in place here. Many are the 
ways in which it can be used. Planted in a double 
row and judiciously pruned, it makes a capital and 
most fragrant hedge from four to six feet high ; but 
it is perhaps prettiest planted among shrubs, with its 
graceful arching stems shooting up through them, or 
in bushy brakes either by itself or among Thorn 
bushes in one of the regions where the garden joins 
wilder ground. It will also assume quite a climbing 
habit if it is led into some tree like a Holly, or 
encouraged to scramble through straggling Black 
or White Thorn of tallish growth in some old hedge. 

Important among the old garden Roses is R. alba. 
Tliough it is allowed to bear a botanical name, it is 


not thought to be a species, but is considered a cross 
between canina and gallica. This capital Rose is 
often seen in cottage gardens, where it is a great 
favourite. The double white form is the most fre- 
quent, but the delicate pink Maiden's Blush is a 
better flower. Lovelier still is the less double Celeste, 
a Rose of wonderful beauty when the bud is half 
opened. When once known the albas may be recog- 
nised, even out of flower, by the bluish colouring and 
general look of the very broad leafleted leaves. The 
blue colouring is accentuated in Celeste, and is a 
charming accompaniment to the rosy tinting of the 
heart of the opening flower. The albas, as well as 
others of the garden Roses, make admirable standards, 
their hardiness and strong constitution enabling them 
to be grown into quite large-headed bushes. It is 
no uncommon thing to see standards with heads a 
yard through in the gardens of cottagers, who also 
grow some of the Ayrshires in this way. 

Rosa alpina has given us the class of free-growing 
Roses known as Boursault. Of late years so many 
more and better climbing kinds have been raised, 
that the Boursaults will probably be less and less 
used, especially as the crimson varieties of the 
Amadis type have a rather unpleasant colour. One 
of this race, the Blush Boursault, would be worthy 
of a place in every garden if it were not that the 
flowers are seldom perfect. Every now and then 
there is a good one, and then it is the loveliest thing 
in the garden, with its almost matchless tinting of 
tender milk-white deepening to a wonderfully pure 


rose colour in the centre. Of the others, Morletti, 
of rather deep pink colouring, is the best. The 
alpinas may be known by their smooth red-barked 
stems, the mature ones being without prickles. R. 
riibrifolia, with pale pink flowers, red stems and red 
foliage, is also an alpina. In fruit they are conspi- 
cuous because of their long-shaped hips. 

The field Rose {R. arvensis), one of the two of our 
commonest native hedge Roses (the one with the 
white, rather clustered flowers), has some good garden 
varieties. One with large single flowers and strong 
rambling habit is an old favourite of mine, and 
another, half double, is equally good and still more 
free of bloom. 

The Banksian Roses (natives of China) are a little 
tender in England, and are thankful for a place on 
a warm wall ; just such a place as also suits the 
Persian Briers. The double yellow is the best for 
growing in England, and lovely it is, with its rich 
clusters of tiny butter-coloured bloom. In many 
gardens it is a failure, absolutely refusing to flower, 
but often does well on chalk soils. 

The old Pink China Rose is always welcome, with 
its pretty clear pink colouring, its dainty scent and 
neat foliage. It makes compact, low hedges, but I 
like it best grown with Rosemary bushes. They look 
just right together and seem to enjoy each other's 
company. I like to plant them in some place at the 
foot of a rather warm wall and to train some of the 
Rosemary to run right up the wall, with other Rose- 
mary bushes free of it in front, and to have it in 



plenty, and the China Roses sometimes in groups 
of three or four, sometimes singly and some also 
trained up the wall among and between the Rose- 
mary bushes. 

The crimson China, Cramoisi Sup^rieur, has long 
been with us, and also the climbing variety ; both 
capital Roses in their places. There are one or two 
others of intermediate colouring. But of the old 
Chinas (garden varieties, not hybrids) the pink and 
the Cramoisi are the best. 

The beautiful Fortune's Yellow has been with us 
long enough to take its place among the older garden 
Roses. It is also from China and tender, liking a 
hot wall ; but I have observed that it also likes to be 
led through some other thin wall shrub that will 
protect the leaves in May when the late frosts come ; 
this seems to prevent that falling of the leaves in May 
which so often happens to the unprotected shoots. 
But it is a Rose that cannot always be trusted to 
bloom well. We have to consider it a capricious 
flower. Sometimes it is loaded with its glorious 
loose copper-coloured bloom, and sometimes it is 
almost bare. We have to remember that it is from 
a climate very different from our own, and that we 
cannot expect to have it in such complete control as 
we may be fairly sure of assuming in the case of 
hardier Roses ; so that when it does do well we must 
be all the more thankful. 

Coupe d'Hebe, a pretty and sweet Rose of a good 
full pink colour, is of uncertain origin ; it makes a 
capital pillar Rose. There are also some old Roses 








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of free growth of which Lady Emily Peel and Emilie 
Plantier are good representatives. Both are of tender 
colouring and have an interesting, old-world ap- 
pearance ; they bloom in loose bunches — not short- 
stalked enough to call clusters — but of admirable 
freedom for cutting in long branches and arranging 
in water. 

Some of the Best Old Garden Roses. 

Cabbage or Provence Roses {R. centifolia). 
Other varieties. 

Moss Roses {R. centifolia tnuscosa) — 
Common Pink. 
Other varieties. 

Pompons of the centifolia class — 

De Meaux ; pink, and white variety. 

Moss de Meaux ; pink. 

Spong; pink. 

Burgundy ; pink, and white variety. 

Provins Roses {R. gallica) — 

Mecene ; white and rose striped. 
Perle des Panach^es ; white, striped lilac-rose. 
Gros Provins Panache ; red and white striped. 
Other varieties. 

Damask {R. damascena) — 
Common Red. 
Cottage Maid, Rosa Mundi, or York and Lancaster; 

red and white. 
One or two other varieties. 

Cinnamon Rose (/?. cifinamovica) ; pink. 


R. LUCiDA ; rose. 

Rose d' Amour, its double variety. 
Scotch Briers, including the type Burnet Rose {R. spinosis- 
sima), and the double kinds in several colourings. 

Sweet-brier, the old single pink. 

The White Rose {R. alba) — 
Double White. 
Maiden's Blush ; blush. 
Celeste ; blush. 

Boursault {R. alpina) — 

Several varieties, the best being — 

Morletti; rose. 

Blush Boursault ; blush white, clear rose to centre. 

Field Rose {R. arvensis) ; white. 

Single and half-double garden kinds. 

Banksian Rose {R. Banksicz) — 

Double Yellow ; the best, nankeen yellow. 

China Rose {R. indica) — 
Common Pink. 
Cramoisi Superieur and its climbing variety ; deep 

Other varieties. 

Fortune's Yellow (i?. Fortu7iei) \ tender, orange and copper. 

Miscellaneous — 

Coupe d'Hebe ; pink pillar rose. 

Madame Plantier ; white, large bush or pillar. 

Emilie Plantier; free, pink white. 

Lady Emily Peel ; free, warm white. 

There are other varieties in this class. 

Portland Roses — 

Rose du Roi and others ; rose and red. 



Climbing Cluster Roses; known as Ayrshire, Hybrids of 
sempervirens, Musk, &c. 
Dundee Rambler ; warm white. 
Garland ; warm white. 
Bennett's Seedling; white. 
Ruga; flesh. 

Felicite-Perpetue ; cream white. 
Flora; pink. 
Splendens ; warm white. 
Queen of the Belgians ; white. 
Some others. 



Roses of one sort or another are with us in the open 
garden for five months out of the twelve, namely from 
the end of May to well on in October. 

One of the first to bloom in an ordinary garden 
collection is likely to be Rosa altaica, the close fore- 
runner of its near relations the Scotch Briers. Though 
it is a native of a far distant mountain range of Central 
Asia, it is almost identical in appearance with our native 
Burnet Rose {R. spinosissima). It blooms some ten 
days earlier and the flowers are a shade larger and the 
whole plant rather more free of growth, but there is 
the same bloom of tender lemon white, the same 
typical brier foliage and the same showy black hips. 
It is a capital garden plant, and takes its place naturally 
with the hardy Briers. 

By the first week of June the Scotch Briers are in 
flower, in all their pretty colourings of pink and rose 
and pale yellow, besides the strongest growing of all, 
the double white. Those who are interested in this 
class of Rose should inquire in the good old Scotch 
gardens, where no doubt fine forms still exist that have 
not come into trade. One of the best and quite the 
sweetest has become rare, and sometimes cannot be 
had even in the best Rose nurseries. It is of a pale 







pink colour, and is conspicuous among other kinds for 
remaining some time in a globular or half-opened 
shape. The leaves are of a bluish tint, and the scent is 
stronger and sweeter than that of any other. 

The Scotch Briers are excellent plants for many 
kinds of use, but are perhaps best of all in wild banks 
with Heaths and Cistuses. No bushy thing is better 
for the capping of a dry wall, for it will hang over and 
also throw out runners between the stones and show 
itself off quite at its best. These fine hardy Briers 
have also one merit that most Roses lack, for in winter 
the leafless crowd of close-growing, plentifully-prickled 
branches forms masses of warm bronze colouring that 
have quite a comforting appearance. The pretty Briers 
might well replace the dull and generally ugly steep 
slopes of turf that disfigure so many gardens. They 
are charming accompaniments to steps and their low 
balustrades ; they are equally in place in the humblest 
garden and the most exalted, and in all sorts and kinds 
of places and for all kinds of uses they hardly ever 
come amiss. 

They are also distinctly in place crowning the upper 
portions of bold rockwork ; in fact this way of having 
them is one of the very best, for they love free air 
and unstinted light, and their neat bushy forms and 
crowded wreaths of bloom are never seen to better 
advantage than when viewed a little from below. 

The Scotch Briers are derived from the native 
Burnet Rose (R. spinosissimd), and are amongst the 
hardiest and most accommodating of their race. Even 
in the poorest soils they will grow freely if only they 


are given a little nutritive encouragement in their first 
year ; after that they take care of themselves. The 
Burnet Rose is found in many parts of England and 
Scotland, generally in heathy places not very far 
from the sea. Among its many merits the beauty of 
its large, round, black hips should not be forgotten. 
These are like exaggerated black currants, only more 
flattened at the poles, with a diameter of from half to 
three-quarters of an inch. 

There is a useful Rose, a hybrid of these Briers, that 
should be grown with them, called Stanwell Perpetual. 
It fully deserves its name, as it flowers throughout the 
summer. Its weak point is a somewhat straggly habit. 
To correct this it is well to place three plants in one 
group close together — that is to say, about a foot apart — 
when they will close up and form a well-shaped bush. 

We are apt to think of the so-called Austrian Briers 
in connection with the Scotch, but it should be remem- 
bered that whereas the Scotch Briers are among the 
hardiest of our Roses, the Austrians are rather tender. 
The name Austrian is misleading, for they are of 
oriental origin, and except in the most favoured 
climates of our islands should be in the warmest and 
most sheltered places we can find for them ; but they 
are so beautiful that they well deserve a good wall space. 
They are in three or perhaps four forms ; the single 
yellow {Rosa luted), and its double form, the Persian 
yellow, and another very near garden variety called 
Harrisoni. Then there is the gorgeous single Austrian 
Copper, whose petals are yellow outside and vermilion 



Some mention was made in the chapter on New 
Garden Roses of the confusion arising from the use 
of the name polyantha for the free rambhng kinds, 
and also for some of the dwarfest growing Roses 
that we have. The word "dwarf" in Rose language 
has already been rather erroneously assigned to Roses 
of bush form to distinguish them from standards, 
whether the Rose in question will grow twenty feet 
or only two, so that the name Dwarf Roses would 
be confusing. Sometimes they are called Miniature 
Roses, but Pompon is the better name. It is a French 
word denoting any kind of upholstered ornament of 
a roundish, tufted form. The name has been ex- 
cellently applied to the small bloomed Chrysanthe- 
mums, whose flowers are about an inch across, and 
that look like close tufts of petals. Just what Pompon 
Chrysanthemums are to the other kinds, so are the 
Pompon Roses to their larger fellows. The most 
important of them are the small kinds of partly 
polyantlia or multiflora extraction, with the close, 
bushy, low-growing habit and clustered flowers. 

They are charming plants for any small spaces. 
They are commonly used as edgings to beds of 
larger Roses, but it is doubtful whether they are 


not best by themselves in small beds ; never in large 
beds, for here the sense of proportion is at once 
offended. But in a Rose garden, for instance, whose 
main form would be a long parallelogram, a scheme 
of some little beds at the ends for the Pompons might 
be designed with excellent effect, the next group of 
beds being of kinds of moderate growth, and so on 
to the larger Roses of the midmost section. Or, in 
the Rose garden scheme, there may occur some very 
narrow beds or borders intended to show only as a 
wide line or single ribbon in the design. Here is the 
place for the Pompons, and many a little nook in the 
free garden, and above all in the rock-garden, where 
they are admirable. 

The little Roses de Meaux, Spong, and Moss de 
Meaux will serve the same use, also the small China 
Cramoisi Superieur, and the tiny representatives of 
the same family known as lawrenceana. 

There is also the very charming little Fairy Rose, 
rarely seen and of doubtful origin, but perhaps the 
loveliest little Rose, both for its tender colour and for 
its supreme daintiness, that could well be imagined. 

Some of the best Pompons of the multifiora section — 
Amelia Susanna Morin ; white, flushed yellowish. 
Anne Maria de Montravel ; white. 
Archduchess Elizabeth Marie; canary, buff and white to 

Bouquet parfait ; rose, darker edges. 
Camille de Rochetaille ; white. 
Clara Pfitzer ; silvery white, shaded rose. 
Clothilda Soupert ; rose and red. 


Colibri ; copper-yellow, shading to white. 

Etoile d'Or ; pale yellow. 

Eugenie Lamesch ; buff yellow. 

Georges Pernet ; rose, peach and yellow. 

Gloire des Polyantha ; rose and white. 

L^onie Lamesch ; deep copper-red, yellow centre. 

Mosella ; white and yellow. 

Mignonette ; pink. 

Perle d'Or ; buff yellow. 

Other Pompon Roses — 

Dwarf ceniifolia, De Meaux. 

Moss de Meaux. 


Lawrenceana and var. Pompon de Paris. 

Fairy Rose. 

White Pet. 

Dwarf Burgundy and white var. 



It is obvious that our garden Roses must have come 
originally from some wild kinds, and it adds immensely 
to the interest of our gardens to know something 
about these original types and the influence they have 
had in the making of our garden Roses ; moreover 
some of the actual types are desirable in themselves. 
Like other classes of plants that are prime favourites, 
such as Daffodils and Irises, some prominent types 
have become the ancestors of a host of hybrids and 
garden varieties, and a close acquaintance with the 
character of the type plant will often give a very fair 
idea of the parentage of any garden Rose whose 
pedigree is unrecorded. 

Though Roses have been for many hundred years 
the most highly prized of garden flowers, yet their 
antiquity, as far as our modern gardens are concerned, 
cannot be compared, for instance, to that of wheat, 
whose origin, in direct association with any one wild 
grass, has never yet been satisfactorily determined. 
We can trace the descent of all our Roses, within a 
move or two, from their wild ancestry, and, by the 
aid of the eye alone, observe relationships. Botanical 
characters, such as the strongly serrated stipule in 
multiflora, are a sure guide, but as this book is for 


c ^ 



the amateur, and deals with the subject from the 
point of view of garden observation and garden enjoy- 
ment, it is well to acquire the more rule-of-thumb, if 
unscientific, method of noting the visible links. Thus 
we learn when we see a hybrid Rose whose leaves 
are bluish and of a dull surface, wide in the leaflet 
and strongly saw-edged, to at once suspect the influ- 
ence of alba. One soon gets to know the characteristic 
leaf of a China, and the habit and leaf character of a 
centifolia (Cabbage) or a gallica. The leaf of rugosa, 
again, cannot be mistaken, and is strongly shown in 
its descendants, even though the other parent was 
some Rose of a very different nature. 

There are, of course, a great many species of Roses, 
and numbers of them are only plants for botanical 
collections. Only those that concern the garden in the 
type form, and those that are the parents of garden 
varieties, are here named and briefly described. 

Rosa acicularis. — A Rose with bright pink bloom and glaucous 

foliage ; a native of Siberia ; it is pretty and interesting, 

flowering at the end of May. 
R. alba. — Not considered a real species though the name is 

usually admitted in botanical classification. Semi-double 

white, with handsome bluish leaves. The double White 

Rose of cottage gardens, Maiden's Blush and Celeste are 

among its garden varieties. 
R. alpina. — A nadve of Europe and parent of the Boursault 

Roses. The mature stems are red and without prickles. 

The bright red hips are very long in shape. 
R. altaica. — The representative of our native Burnet Rose 

{R. spinosisswia) in Northern Central Asia. A beautiful 

garden bush with lemon-white flowers. 


R. arvensis. — One of our own hedge Roses ; a large single- 
bloomed variety of extra rambling habit and some half 

double ones are good garden plants. 
R. BanksicB. — A rambling Chinese Rose without prickles, best 

known in England by the double yellow form. 
R. beggeriana. — From Central Asia ; a bush with small glabrous 

leaves and small, white, unpleasant-smelling flowers ; an 

interesting kind though not showy. 
R. blanda. — North American. Called also the Hudson's Bay 

or Labrador Rose; a good-sized bush with large pink 

R. bracteata. — From China. The Macartney Rose, with large 

white blooms and handsome poUshed leaves. There is 

also a double variety called Marie Leonide which is 

stronger growing than the type. 
R. Carolina. — A North American species, not of the first 

importance, and yet of some value in that it blooms in 

late summer and autumn. 
R. centifolia. — The type of the Cabbage or Provence Roses, 

of the Moss Roses and the small de Meaux. 
R. cinnaviomea. — The double form is the Cinnamon Rose of 

our older gardens. The flowers are rather few, pink or 

pale rose, and flattened. 
R. clynophylla. — A white-flowered trailing Rose of scrambUng 

habit ; scarcely suitable for a garden, but good for a wild 

R. damascena. — (Damask). A good old garden Rose of 

oriental origin, with several varieties, red, white and 

R. Ec(B. — A tender Rose from Abyssinia, with yellow flowers 

the size of a shilling. It does well occasionally in the 

south of England. 
R. gallica. — The type of most of the older garden Roses. 

This and the Damask Rose are no doubt the ancestors 

of the modern Hybrid Perpetuals. Pretty bushes in 

many varieties. 

r^, :--. 

CL, i-J 

■^ CO 



BOTH MAGENTA-PINK, ^^ inches. 


R. humilis. — A white Rose. R. humilis rugosa is an ex- 
cellent bush garden Rose with pink flowers. 

R. indica. — The type of the China Rose, but there are other 
forms of R. indica that are apparently the types of some 
of the Teas. 

R. IcBvigata. — A native of China; it makes a good pillar or 
climbing Rose in the south of England, though it 
is better in France. It has shining leaves and large 
white flowers. 

R. lucida. — A well-known garden Rose from North America, 
with shining leaves and rose-coloured flowers. It grows 
into bushy masses. The double variety, though not 
common, is very beautiful. 

R. lutea. — An oriental yellow Brier, the origin of the double 
Persian yellow, and of the Austrian Copper. 

R. macrantha. — Single large rose coloured ; a wild hybrid of 
canina and gallica. 

R. macrophylla. — A handsome, tall growing Rose with many 
large, full-pink flowers. It makes a good pillar Rose and 
deserves to be more generally planted. 

R. microphylla. — A Chinese Rose with buff-coloured wood 
and straight, sharp, gooseberry-like prickles. The bud 
is curious from the prickly calyx. The double variety 
is a handsome flat flower, light pink, with crimson 

R. mollis pomifera. — The Apple-bearing Rose of older gardens. 
The foliage is soft and bluish, the flowers pink and the 
hips large and handsome. 

R. moschata = R. Brunoni. — A rambling Himalayan Rose of 
great beauty, bearing a quantity of clustered white bloom 
and having graceful bluish foliage. Best used to ramble 
through trees and bushes. 

R. multifiora = polyantha. — Of eastern Asiatic origin. It 
makes large bushy brakes by itself and is the parent of 
many of our best rambling Roses. 


R. omissa. — An erect bush with pink flowers and grey, softly 
pubescent leaves. A pretty and interesting Rose. 

R. pisocarpa. — A rather straggling Californian bush, flowering 
in corymbs. The leaves are glabrous and the flowers 
pink or red. 

R. Pissardi. — A handsome Persian Rose with white bloom. 

R. rubiginosa. — The native Sweet-brier. In the type form 
an indispensable Rose. The beautiful Penzance hybrids 
derived from it should be in every garden. 

R. rugosa. — The Japanese Ramanas Rose. One of the 
hardiest of Roses. There are good garden forms and 
hybrids. The hips are the showiest of any known 

R. rubrifolia. — An European Rose with small red flowers and 
red stems and leaves ; very near R. alpina. 

R. sempervirens. — A wild Italian Rose, the parent of many of 
our older cluster and rambling Roses. The leaves are 
small and polished and endure through the greater part 
of the winter. 

R. setigera. — The latest to bloom of the wild Roses. From 
North America. Flowers magenta-rose. It makes a 
good pillar Rose. 

R. simplicifolia = berberifolia. — A small and tender yellow 
Rose, requiring a sheltered place against a warm wall. 

R. spmosissitna. — The native Burnet Rose, type of the well- 
known Scotch Briers. 

R. wichuriana. — A traiUng Japanese species with small, 
polished, deep green leaves and white flowers. Beauti- 
ful hybrids are now being de "" from it. 




Many of our ordinary garden Roses are necessarily 
own root plants. This is because they are so easily 
propagated by other methods than budding. Pro- 
vence, Damask, the albas and the Briers increase by 
suckers, Sweet-brier by seed or cuttings, and the 
free-growing Ayrshires and multiflora hybrids by 
cuttings or layers. But there are many gardens 
where other Roses, especially the Teas and Hybrid 
Teas, kinds that with rare exceptions are sold grafted, 
would be better on their own roots. 

Such plants have several advantages. They are 
much longer lived, they give more bloom, they bloom 
more continuously, and they throw up no troublesome 

The common Dog Rose, the most usual stock in 
England, is very troublesome in the way of suckers, 
and often in the case of Roses from some good 
foreign raiser, the stock, if not carefully watched, 
will overpower the scion, and we find we have a 
flourishing bush certainly, but of Manetti or of De la 
Grifferaie instead of the Rose desired. 

Grafted plants may be best for the production of 
show blooms, but the bush that is to produce the 
show bloom is to a great extent reared and nurtured 


for that purpose, and the severe pruning to encourage 
larger flowers and the shading to preserve colour 
put the plant that is to bear them out of the category 
of beautiful things in the garden, whereas the own 
root Roses, bearing slightly smaller flowers — though 
there are exceptions even to this — fulfil their best 
purpose as true garden plants. 

There can be no doubt that on rather light soils 
and quite poor ones — not of course left to themselves, 
but moderately and reasonably improved — own root 
Roses of the kinds classed as show Roses do better 
than grafted. This being so, and their other advan- 
tages being considered, it seems strange that they are 
not oftener so grown. Moreover they strike readily 
in July and August, so that if they cannot be obtained 
elsewhere, they can easily be made at home from 
grafted plants. 

Every one who has grown Roses on a poor or dry 
soil, even when beds have been well prepared and 
duly mulched and all reasonable care given, knows 
only too well that sad, worn-out look of unhappy 
grafted Roses, some three years after planting. There 
are varieties that to the Rose lover are indispensable, 
such as Catherine Mermet, a kind that will do quite 
well in such soils on its own roots, whereas the 
same grand Rose grafted is a total failure. 

There is also a satisfaction in knowing just what 
one is growing. If a Rose is on its own roots there 
is no doubt about its identity. If it fails after 
reasonable trial we may know that the Rose itself 
will not be happy, and not that it is perhaps a 



tantrum of the stock — maybe we do not even know 
what stock ! 

Then the foreign stocks are plants from various 
parts of Europe, perhaps from soils of quite different 
chemical constituents. Some particular stock may 
not suit some particular garden, so that the grower's 
perplexities are much increased, and he is offered 
additional chances of going wrong. If the plant is 
on its own roots and fairly treated it does well or it 
does not, and there the matter ends. 



A PILLAR in garden phrase is rather an elastic term, 

for though a Rose pillar pure and simple is what it 

seems to be — that is to say, a Rose grown to a certain 

height in upright shape — there are other developments 

of the form that are commonly accepted as of the 

pillar family, and may be conveniently described 

under the same title. The foundation of the pillar 

proper is generally a post of larch or oak or a 

narrow upright iron framework. A Rose is chosen 

whose height and natural way of growth is suitable, 

and it is trained and encouraged to grow so that it 

will show a column of bloom over the greater part 

of its surface, and so as not to be too leggy at the 

bottom. A perspective of Rose pillars is a charming 

feature in a garden, and one of the ways in which 

their beauty may be best enjoyed. They should be 

so placed that one can go right up to them and see 

the Roses at eye level and below it and also against 

the sky, and smell their sweet scent in perfect comfort 

as they grow. The posts may either stand quite free, 

or, for the better showing of the rambling Roses, be 

connected by a chain that hangs in easy festoons. 

Another form of pillar is of greater width, when 

either three or four posts are planted in group, or a 







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wider iron frame is placed to make a thicker block 
of upright Roses. Another is wider still, and the 
Roses are trained either up or round it outside, or 
up a central support and then out at the top, from 
whence they fall over and cover the sides. This is 
an excellent way of growing that beautiful old Rose 
Blairii No. 2. For full fifty years this fine thing has 
been with us, and in its own way there is as yet 
nothing better. Its origin is not clearly known, but 
it seems to be related to the China Roses. Its dainty 
pink colouring, deepening to the centre, gives it a 
rare charm, and recalls the loveliness of a looser 
Rose, the Blush Boursault, that, alas 1 so seldom gives 
well-formed blooms. Another way of forming the 
thick pillar or balloon is to have a stout wooden 
central post and three intersecting iron arches each 
six feet wide, forming six outer standards that arch 
over to the central post, and lateral wires girthing 
the whole about eighteen inches apart. The post 
should be five to six inches thick, the iron arches 
three-eighths of an inch, and the lateral wires one- 
quarter inch. In the case of a structure of this size 
six plants of the same kind of Rose are used, one to 
each upright, and all are trained upwards. 

This thick form of pillar leads to the Rose umbrella, 
a way of training a free-growing standard that, though 
its evident elaboration of support does not commend 
it to people of simple taste, yet certainly does produce 
a wonderful show of bloom. But the iron frame, if 
of any size, has to be guyed all round by stiffly 
strained wires, and these have to be fixed to stumps 


driven into the ground, and some of us feel that a 
way of growing that entails the necessity of employing 
such complicated machinery of support is out of 
harmony with the Rose sentiment and damping to 
Rose fervour. 

Some of the Best Pillar Roses (tall). 

Multiflora hybrids (see p. 26). 

Wichuriana hybrids (see p. 11). 

Ayrshires (see p. 21). 

Climbing Aimde Vibert, N. ; white. 

Waltham Climber, T. ; red. 

Reine Marie Henriette, H.T. ; rosy red. 

Reine Olga de Wurtemburg, H.T. ; red. 

Carmine Pillar, Hyb. ; deep rose. 

Crimson Rambler, Mult. ; crimson. 

Longworth Rambler, N. ; rose-crimson. 

Gloire de Dijon, T. ; buff and orange. 

Bouquet d'Or, T. ; ,, „ 

Madame Berard, T. ; ,, „ 

Penzance Briers (see p. 11). 

William Allen Richardson, N. ; orange. 

Madame Alfred Carriere, H.N. ; warm white. 

Bardou Job, T. ; dark red. 

Baronne de Hofifmann, T. ; copper red. 

Climbing Devoniensis, T. ; yellow white. 

Clothilde Soupert, T. ; carmine rose. 

Duchesse D'Auerstadt, T. ; yellow. 

Fanny Stolwerk, T. ; salmon rose. 

Pink Rover, H.T. ; light rose. 

Paul's Single White. 

Ard's Rover, H.P. ; red. 


Some Pillar Roses of Moderate Height. 

Purity, H.B. ; white. 

Belle Lyonnaise, T. ; buff white. 

Alister Stella Gray, N. ; buff. 

Climbing Captain Christy, H.C ; blush and pink. 

Climbing Mrs. W. J. Grant, H.T. ; salmon pink. 

Climbing Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, H.T. ; white shaded 

to centre. 
Gloire Lyonnaise, H.T. ; white, lemon centre. 
Griiss an TepHtz, H.T. ; crimson. 
Dawn, H.T. ; nearly single, pale pink. 
Coupe d'Hebe, Hyb. ; pink. 
Madame Plantier, Hyb. ; white. 
Blairii No. 2, Hyb. ; clear pink and pink white. 
Climbing Eugenie Verdier, H.P. ; salmon pink. 
Brightness of Cheshunt, H.P. ; red. 
Frances Bloxam, H.C. ; salmon pink. 
Climbing Victor Verdier, H.P. ; red. 
Climbing Pride of Waltham, H.P. ; salmon. 
Gloire des Rosomanes, Hyb. ; red. 
Charles Lawson, H.P. ; rose. 



Every garden is now wanting a Pergola, that pleasant 
shape of covered way that we have borrowed from 
Italy, where it is employed not only for its grateful 
shade but because it is just the right kind of support 
and way of treatment for the vines of sunny southern 

We have adopted the name because it is more 
convenient than the older name of covered alley, 
which three centuries ago was its nearest equivalent 
in English gardens. But this was formed on a much 
more elaborate wooden framework, a kind of un- 
interrupted arched trellis for the training of some 
green tree such as Hornbeam or Wych Elm, whose 
rigid branches had to be closely watched and carefully 
guided and fixed until the whole covering was com- 
plete ; after which the chief care was the outer 
clipping into shape. 

The modern pergola is a more free thing altogether 
and differently constructed. Upright piers of brick, 
stone, iron or wood are erected in pairs across the 
path and a connecting beam is put in place. A 
slighter top is made with thinner pieces such as 
larch poles, and the whole is planted with free growing 



A Rose pergola should be so placed that it is well 
seen from the sides. One whose purpose is merely 
to make a shady way is better covered with leafy 
growths of Vine, Aristolochia or Virginia Creeper, 
for if they have not free air and space at the sides, the 
Roses will merely rush up and extend skyward where 
they cannot be seen. 

But a pergola that crosses some open grassy space, 
such as might divide two portions of a garden, or that 
forms a middle line in the design of one complete 
garden scheme, is admirably suited for Roses, and a 
broad turf walk on each side will allow them to be 
seen to the best advantage. 

Here it may be well to observe that a structure such 
as this, which is of some importance of size and 
appearance, cannot just be dabbed down anywhere. 
It ought to lead distinctly from some clear beginning 
to some definite end ; it should be a distinct part of a 
scheme, otherwise it merely looks silly and out of 
place. If there is no space where it will be clearly 
right it is better not to have it. There are arrange- 
ments less binding to definite design, such as pillars 
of Roses or arches at a cross walk, and many free 
uses on fences, trees, and unsightly places. An 
arboured seat is always a good ending to a pergola, 
and a place where ways meet often suggests a suitable 
beginning. Such a place may be glorified by circular 
or octagonal treatment, with a central tank or fountain, 
and pillars of Roses to mark the points of the octagon 
or relative points on the circumference. But space, 
proportion, and the nature of the environment must 


all be considered ; indeed in this, as in the very 
smallest detail of procedure in garden design, just 
the right thing should be done or it is better let 

In small gardens in which there is no general 
design there often occurs some space where one 
department gives place to another — as when flower 
garden adjoins vegetable ground — where a short 
pergola-like structure of two or three pairs of posts 
may be quite in place and will form a kind of deepened 
archway. Such an arrangement in iron is shown in 
the illustration, where it makes a pleasant break in an 
awkward corner where there is a mixture of wall and 
flower border and a turn of the path. 

The pergola proper should be always on a level 
and should never curl or twist. If a change of 
level occurs in its length in the place where it is 
proposed to have it, it is much better to excavate and 
put in a bit of dry wall right and left and steps at the 
end, either free of the last arch or with the last two 
pairs of piers carried up square to a higher level, so as 
to give as much head-room at the top step as there is 
in the main alley. 

There is a great advantage in having solid piers of 
masonry for such structures ; piers of fourteen-inch 
brickwork are excellent, and in some districts even 
monoliths of stone can be obtained ; but often the 
expense of stone or brickwork cannot be undertaken 
and something slighter and less costly must be used. 
The illustration of a Wistaria pergola is the more 
instructive because the structure shown is only a few 

• 4?' , 














i^^ ^*V*- .'V._ ■^r 







years old and the way the framework is made may be 
clearly seen. 

Here it is of squared wood, with the beams partly 
supported and much strengthened, and the whole 
fabric stiffened, by slightly curved or cambered braces 
of the same. It should be noticed how much the 
curve of the brace adds to the strength of the support 
and how pleasantly it satisfies the eye. It would have 
been better still if the beam itself had been ever so 
slightly cambered. It will also be seen that the feet 
of the posts, instead of going into the ground, rest on 
a wrought stone ; an iron dowel let into both stone 
and post fixing it firmly. Thus there is no danger of 
the foot of the post rotting. 

For the first year or two there is no need to fill in 
the top with the slighter poles that later will support 
the more extensive growths of the creepers ; indeed 
the whole thing is very pretty, with a different kind of 
form and beauty, to the mature pergola with its fully 
filled roof. In these earlier years one sees more of 
the individual plants, and their first vigour of growth 
and bloom can be more fully enjoyed. In many cases 
such pairs of posts with connecting beam and side 
rails, but without roof, are more suitable than the 
complete pergola. This arrangement is shown in the 
pictures where they are placed across the main walks 
of the kitchen garden and where the Roses are to be 
§een from the walk alone, not from the sides, which 
are only vegetable quarters. 

In some of the illustrations the framework is of the 
simplest possible construction, of oak or of larch. In 


these the posts go into the ground. This of course 
will have a shorter lifetime, and after several years 
signs of weakness must be looked for. A spur of 
larch or oak going deep into the ground and nailed or 
bolted to a shaky post will prolong its life for some 
more years, but there always comes a time of sore 
regret (when constant repair is needed) that it was not 
made more structurally permanent at the beginning. 

The sides of the pergola may be much ornamented 
by hanging garlands of Roses trained to chains. 


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Many are the ways in which an arch of Roses may 
be beautiful in the garden, whether it be a garden 
of some distinctly set design or one that is quite 

Where two ways meet or cross at a right angle 
there is always an opportunity for the placing of 
an arch of Roses, or where flower garden passes into 
kitchen garden, whether it be walled or not. A Rose 
arch is none the less a Rose arch because there is 
a brick arch behind it, although what is generally 
understood as a Rose arch is one that stands free or 
is in connection with a bounding hedge, the Rose itself 
forming the arch, only supported by a framework 
of wood or iron. 

But often in a modest garden there are other uses 
for a Rose arch, such as the garden will itself suggest. 
For instance, where a double flower border is made 
in a kitchen garden, and it is desirable to take up as 
little space as may be, a whole Rose scheme may be 
conveniently combined with borders of useful flowers 
for cutting or for contemplation. A four-foot grass 
or gravel path would have on each side borders of 
five feet wide. At intervals of twenty-live feet, Rose 
arches, the foot of the arches planted in the back 


of the borders, span the whole. At the back of both 
borders is a hedge of Roses that will grow about three 
feet high. If the space is divided into four, points 
will be found for three pillar Roses rising from the 
hedge and in a line with it ; those will therefore stand 
about eight feet apart. 

The illustration shows a Crimson Rambler trained 
over a wire support in a free hedge of Rhododendrons 
in a place where a path from one division of a garden 
leads into another. 

An incident in this picture that is not at all of un- 
frequent occurrence is worthy of notice. It is the 
carefully made rabbit-proof iron fencing, with two 
wires out in the lower part of the gate, leaving a 
space which seems to invite the entrance of any small 
animal. When it is desired to keep out rabbits, and 
an expensive fence is put up for the purpose, one 
such oversight makes the whole thing useless. Gates 
of this slight construction, which are in themselves 
perhaps the least distressing to the eye of all their 
unsightly class, are especially liable to injury from an 
accidental kick, or a blow from a barrow wheel. 

Wrought iron gates, with richly designed ornament 
of the best kind that are made for the place itself, of 
perfect proportion and suitable enrichment, may well 
lead into and out of the Rose garden, or indeed any 
other garden division, and Roses may clamber near 
them, but it is more fitting that they should not climb 
over or into gates or screens of this class. Two such 
richly decorated objects as the artist-craftsman's work 
in enduring metal and the clusters of living Rose had 







o I 

Dq c^ 

O ^ 










better be seen and enjoyed separately. But in the 
case of a simple arch in a brick garden wall and a 
wrought-iron gate of very simple design, such as the 
one in the illustration, the Rose is a welcome and 
rightly placed addition to the garden picture. The 
simple old Rose arbour, by no means so often seen 
as it might well be, should be in every modest garden. 
A Dundee Rambler on one side to cover the top, 
and an Aimee Vibert, or an alba kept to pillar height, 
to clothe the other side, will be an ample furnishing, 
though there is a sense of additional comfort if the 
back wall, unless the arbour is actually against a wall 
of brick or stone, were of some solid greenery, such 
as yew or box. An arbour may be anything between 
this and a more important structure, but in any case 
some free Roses at its opening offer a charming invita- 
tion to enter and rest in grateful shade in the June 
and July days of their blooming season. 



Many are the opportunities in the planning of gardens 
for having a screen or hedge all of Roses. Sometimes 
it may occur as part of the Rose garden design, but 
more often in some detached portion of the grounds 
some kind of light screen is actually wanted. There 
are often rubbishy or at least unbeautiful spaces on 
some of the frontiers of the kitchen garden, where 
a Rose screen or hedge will not only hide the un- 
sightliness, but will provide a thing beautiful in itself 
and that yields a large quantity of bloom for cutting. 
Many are the kinds of structure that may be used to 
support and train the Roses, But with posts of oak 
or larch, and straight long lengths of sawn larch 
tips for the top rail, and some wire netting of the 
coarsest mesh, an effective framework may be easily 
and cheaply made that in three years will show a 
perfect covering of blooming Roses. Between this 
and the elaborately made wooden framings there are 
many grades and forms of flower wall or trellis that 
can be arranged according to special use or need. 
One pretty way is to have a low trellis with posts 
for pillar Roses at intervals. This can be carried a 
little further by having chains from post to post. If 
this should occur on each side of a path, the posts 


coming opposite each other can be connected by an 
arched top. This arrangement can also be very 
prettily adapted to such a Rose trellis at the back 
of a flower border, either at the two ends of the 
border or at intervals in its length. It would be 
an extremely pretty way of having a double flower 
border in three divisions, with such an open cross 
screen twice in the length, as well as at the begin- 
ning and end. The first division of the border might 
well be flowers all blue and white and pale yellow, 
with bluish foliage ; the middle one of warm colour- 
ings of rose, red, scarlet, orange, and full yellows, 
and the third of purple, pale pink and white flowers, 
with silvery and other cool foliage. 

Chains are generally used to form the garlands 
from post to post, and they are the best, as they 
hang in a good natural line. A cheaper and not bad 
substitute is wire rope. Whether chain or rope is 
used it is an excellent plan, and much better for the 
Roses, to wind thick tarred twine, or something 
stronger than twine — tarred cord as thick as the 
diameter of a large Sweet Pea seed — round and 
round the chain or wire, keeping the coils rather 
close, so that the Rose branches do not actually touch 
the iron but rest upon the coiled cord. 

For the post and low trellis the posts are planted 
with any of the good ramblers or Roses of free 
growth, while the low trellis may have strong grow- 
ing H.P.s or any of the Teas and Hybrid Teas 
usually described in Rose lists as " vigorous." In 

this case two Roses, or three, according to space, 



preferably of the same kind, would be planted against 
each panel of the trellis. Another way would be to 
plant another Rose of rambling habit against the 
middle of the trellis and train it down over its next 

Posts when put into the ground should always 
have the ends prepared either by gas-tarring or by 
charring in the fire. This preparation should come 
up the post quite a foot out of the ground, as damp 
and rot attack it first at or near the ground line. If 
a better kind of wooden framework is made, the posts 
are set on stone or brickwork nine inches to a foot 
out of the ground, as described in the chapter on the 
pergola at p. 40. 

Roses of the free-growing kinds adapt themselves 
readily to the form of hedges. One has only to 
choose a Rose of more or less vigour, according to 
the height required. The hedge or screen way of 
growing them has the merit of ease of access for 
training and pruning as well as that of giving close 
enjoyment of the living walls of flowers. The 
tendency of nearly all strong growing Roses is to 
rush up and leave bare places below. A Rose hedge 
should, if possible, have a free space on both sides, 
when this defect can be remedied in two ways ; one 
by training the shoots in an arched form with the 
tips bent well down, and the other to tip some of the 
outer strong young shoots that spring from the base. 
If in July these are shortened about a third, instead 


of continuing their growth in length, their energy 
goes to strengthening the shortened piece that is left. 
This will then, the following season, be thickly set 
with flowering laterals that will clothe the lower part 
of the hedge. 

Many of the newer rambling Roses, the old Ayr- 
shires and the stronger of the Teas, are admirable for 
this way of growth, while there are Roses to suit 
every height. The height of the Rose hedge, as in 
all other matters of garden design, must be determined 
in relation to the proportion of the space it is to fill 
and the size and distribution of whatever may be 
within view. Nothing is gained by carrying it up 
to a great height. Eight or nine feet is in most cases 
the limit of desirable height, while anything from four 
to seven feet will be likely to suit the wants of most 
modest gardens. A charming hedge four feet high 
can be made with the old favourite Madame Plantier. 
It is all the prettier if there is a short standard of the 
same at regular intervals. Another pretty hedge of 
the same class can be made with this good Rose in 
combination with one of pink colouring, such as the 
old H.P. Anna Alexieff. I know a pretty Rose hedge 
where the two are mixed ; not planted alternately, 
but two or three of one kind and then one of the other, 
and so on in irregular sequence. Or it would be 
charming to have short standards of Anna Alexieff 
rising as just described from the low hedge of the 
white Madame Plantier. 

No one would regret some planting of these two 
excellent old garden Roses. This one example is 


given as a type of this kind of planting. Any one 
who tried it and had enough garden sensibility to 
feel its charm, and enough garden fervour to wish to 
practise it in varied forms, would soon invent other 

It would be easy to name many such desirable 
m.ixtures, but it is more helpful to show one simple 
thing that is easily understood, and that awakens 
interest and enthusiasm, and to leave those wholesome 
motive powers to do their own work, than it is to 
prompt the learner at every step, fussing like an 
anxious nurse, and doing for him, what, if his en- 
thusiasm is true and deep and not mere idle froth, 
will give him more pleasure in the doing, and more 
profit in the learning, than if it were all done for him. 
For the very essence of good gardening is the taking 
of thought and trouble. No one can do good decora- 
tive work who does it merely from a written recipe. 
The use of such a book as this is to describe enough 
to set the Rose pilgrim on his road, not to blindfold 
him and lead him all the way by hand. 

■v^'«r m. 'i-TijictT^j 





Among the many ways of worthily using the free 
Ayrshire Roses, one of the best is to leave them to 
their own way of growth, without any staking or 
guiding whatever. Due space must be allowed for 
their full size, which will be a diameter of some ten 
feet. Of these useful garden Roses none is more 
beautiful than the Garland, with its masses of pretty 
blush-white bloom. It is well worth getting up at 
4 A.M. on a mid-June morning to see the tender 
loveliness of the newly opening buds ; for, beauti- 
ful though they are at noon, they are better still when 
just awaking after the refreshing influence of the 
short summer night. 

Several others among the old Ayrshires are excellent 
in this way of growth, though perhaps there are none 
to beat the Garland and Dundee Rambler. A grassy 
space where they may be seen all round, or a place 
where the great bush may be free at least on two 
sides, are the most suitable, or they may be used as 
central or symmetrically recurring points in a Rose 
garden of some size. The young growths that show 
above the mass when the bloom is waning are the 
flowering branches of next year ; they will arch over 
and bear the clusters of flowers on short stems 


thrown out at each joint. The way these young 
main branches spring up and bend over when mature 
is exactly the way that best displays the bloom. 
Each little flower of the cluster is shown in just the 
most beautiful way ; and it is charming to see, when 
light winds are about, how the ends of the sprays, 
slightly stirred by the active air, make pretty curtsey- 
ing movements arising from the weight of the crowded 
bloom and the elasticity of the supporting stem. 

There is a whole range of use of these beautiful 
Roses, from this free fountain shape without any 
artificial support, to association with trees and bushes 
in shrub clumps and wood edges, and from that to 
clambering into the trees themselves. 

The illustration shows this pretty Cluster Rose grow- 
ing over and among some Pernettyas, beside a broad 
grassy way that passes from garden into copse. The 
young growths may be seen rising above it, as yet 
quite soft and tender, and only half grown. As the 
year goes on they will harden and mature and arch 
over, and next year bloom in their turn. 

When these free Roses rush up into trees, instead 
of throwing out their new growths from close to the 
earth, they are formed upon the older wood higher 
up, and the stem or stems that supports them go 
on growing till sometimes they attain a considerable 

Everything that has been said of the Garland Rose, 
as to its use as a fountain Rose or free climber, may 
also be said of Dundee Rambler, Bennett's Seedling, 
F61icit^-Perpetue, and others of the cluster Roses 


CLUSIEIx ROSE (St'iiipeiviiens} AS A BUSH. 



classed as Ayrshires. They are all worthy of use in 
these ways, and of being encouraged to clamber into 
trees and hedges. One cannot help observing how 
the support of a tree encourages almost abnormal 
growth. The wild Dog-rose will go up twenty feet, 
and Sweet-brier nearly as high ; while almost any Rose 
that has at all a climbing habit will exert itself to the 
utmost to get high up into the tree. 

Climbing Aimee Vibert is generally used as a pillar 
Rose, but the picture shows how it will rush up into 
a tree and increase, not only in height but in freedom 
of flowering. 

The free-growing R. multiflora of the Himalayas 
also forms immense fountains, spreading in diameter 
by naturally rooted layers, from which new plants 
take root at the outer circumference of the great bush, 
throwing up strong growths, and so continually in- 
creasing its area. The large flowered one {R. multi- 
flora grandiflord), as well as the double kind, are 
valuable varieties, with all the freedom of the type, 
while each has its own distinct development of some- 
what the same class of beauty. 

For spaces between garden and wild, for sloping 
banks, for broken ground, as of an old gravel pit or 
other excavation, for all sorts of odds and ends 
of unclassified places about the home grounds, the 
rambling and free-growing Roses seem to be offered 
us by a specially benevolent horticultural providence. 
A well-prepared hole is all they need at first. About 
four years after planting, if the best they can do for 
us is desired, they should be looked to in the way of 


removing old wood. This should be done every two 
years, but beyond this they need no pruning and no 
staking whatever. When they begin to grow freely 
among bushes or trees, if it is desired to lead the far- 
reaching growths one way rather than another, it is 
easily done with a long forked stick, and a very 
pleasant and interesting job it is. It is like painting 
a picture with an immensely long-handled brush, for 
with a fourteen-foot pole with a forked end one can 
guide the branches into Yew or Holly or tall Thorn 
very nearly into such forms of upright spring or down- 
ward swag as one pleases. 

It is pleasant, too, in such rough places, to see the 
behaviour of one of these Roses on the ground with- 
out support, and to watch the different way of its own 
brother plant climbing into a neighbouring tree. 









The name Cluster Rose, which formerly belonged 
almost entirely to the older class of garden Roses 
known as the Ayrshires, varieties of sempervirens, and 
the Musk Roses, has lately been necessarily extended 
to all the beautiful things that the last few years have 
given us, most of them hybrids of Rosa multijiora or 
polyantha. All these Roses are derived from species 
of rambling habit that in their native places climb 
about among rocks and bushes. They seem willing 
to extend their natural growth, for if guided into an 
evergreen tree, such as Holly or Ilex, they will clamber 
up to surprising heights. Climbing Aimee Vibert, for 
instance, which is generally used as a pillar Rose or for 
some such use as that shown in the frontispiece, will 
rush high up into a tree, as may be seen in the picture 
(P* 55)' The uses of these free Roses are unending, 
but just now it is their adaptation to house and gar- 
den walls that is under consideration. When growing 
naturally, these Roses throw out young rods of new 
growth every year ; by degrees the older growths die, 
and the younger ones, pushing outward, shoot up 
through the dead and dying branches, both hiding 
them and displaying their own fresh young beauty. 
But on a wall this internal scaffolding of dead wood 


cannot be tolerated, and a close watch has to be kept 
on the plants, and the older growths have to be cut 
right away at least every two years. How these free 
Roses will grow over and decorate the porch and 
walls of a small house of no architectural pretension 
may be seen from the illustration. It is just these 
houses that best lend themselves to the use of the 
climbing Roses, indeed many that are absolutely ugly, 
or worse than plainly ugly — debased by fictitious 
so-called ornament of the worst class — may be re- 
deemed and even made beautiful by these bountiful 
and lovely Cluster Roses. 

A modest dwelling that has no special beauty or 
character may by a clever use of climbing Roses be 
converted into a delightful object. No one could pass 
the roadside cottage shown in the illustration without 
a thrill of admiration for the free-growing cluster Rose 
that covers the walls and wreaths the front of the 

The little house itself has lost much of its true 
character from the evident alteration of the windows, 
which would originally have been either lead lights 
and casements, or, if sash windows, would have had 
the panes smaller, with rather thick sash-bars. The 
large panes destroy the proportion and make the 
house look too small for them. Some ugly flat frames 
to all the windows, and pediment-shaped additions to 
the tops of the lower ones, do much to destroy and 
vulgarise the effect of what must have been a little 
building with the modest charm of perfect simplicity. 
The lead-roofed porch is right, and so is the open 






cy ^ 





wooden railing. One cannot but be thankful that 
when the windows were altered so much for the 
worse, the railing was not replaced by a cast-iron 
" ornamental " atrocity. 

When a house is of fine design one hesitates about 
covering it with flowering plants, but in such cases 
they find their right places on terrace walls, unless 
these are decorated with wrought stone balustrading. 

The illustration shows an example of good use of 
the beautiful Garland Rose on the terrace of a good 
square-built house of middle or late eighteenth century 
construction. The terrace is not balustraded, and the 
two or three feet of height gained by the rising of the 
Rose and the other free growths give the needed sense 
of security in a kind of living parapet. 

Many are the Roses for use on garden walls. They 
are detailed in lists referred to at the end of the 
chapter on Pillar Roses, and only some of the most 
remarkable need be here noticed. 

In the south of England, walls facing south and 
south-west are too hot a place for many of the Roses 
commonly planted against them, although these ex- 
posures suit the tender Roses, the Noisettes, Banksias, 
Macartneys, and Fortune's Yellow, all of rambling 
growth. Here is also the place for the beautiful 
Persian Briers, including the scarlet so-called Austrian, 
the curious Abyssinian Rosa Eccb with yellow blooms 
the size of a shilling, Rosa shnplicifolia Hardi with 
yellow flowers that have a dark blotch at the base 
of the petal, and Rosa microphylla, a flower whose 
character is quite its own. The double variety has 


the best bloom and is very ornamental ; in both the 
double and single the prickly calyx is a remarkable 
feature, as is also the fruit of the type, which by 
retaining this curious calyx forms a strange-looking 

On garden walls of other exposures in the southern 
parts of England almost any of the free-growing Roses 
will do well. Naturally in the colder midlands and in 
the damper climates of Scotland, Ireland, and Wales 
the warm aspects may be used for more kinds of 
Roses, such as the Teas and Hybrid Teas. 

Many a beautiful effect may be gained by a Rose 
planted on one side of a wall and trained to tumble 
over the top on to the other side. Often a south wall 
is devoted to rather tender shrubs ; in such a place if 
a hardy cluster Rose, such as Dundee Rambler, is 
planted on the north side, a good mass of its bloom 
will come over and help to decorate the walls on the 
more precious or southern face. 

It should be remembered that as Roses on walls 
want training and pruning that it is well, even if there 
is an important flower border in front, to have a little 
blind alley running within a foot or so of the wall. 
If they are not easy to get at they are apt to be 
neglected. There must be every facility for training, 
pruning, mulching and cutting. The pruning in this 
case consists in the removal of the older wood of 
these free-growing Roses ; it must never be neglected, 
or the plant will soon grow thin and leggy. Who 
does not know the starved wall Rose in a worn-out 
border against a bare wall, with ten or twelve feet of 



naked stem and branch and famished growth of flower 
and leaf covered with green-fly ? Perhaps within 
three feet of its root is a flourishing Ivy, with a stem 
as thick as a man's wrist, covering half the house and 
bulging with the loose untidy nests of house sparrows. 
If we expect a Rose to give its beauty we should at 
least let it have . fair play both above ground and 
below ; in the ground by giving it proper space and 
nutriment, and above by watching for the time when 
old wood should be cut out, rampant young stuff 
tipped, and new flowering wood trained in. 



No plant is more helpful and accommodating than 
the Rose in the way of screening ugliness and pro- 
viding living curtains of flowery drapery for putting 
over dull or unsightly places. For instance, no object 
can be much less of an adornment to a garden than 
the class of ready-made wooden arbour or summer- 
house " made of well-seasoned deal, and painted three 
coats complete." Yet by covering it with an outer 
skin of ramping Roses it may in about three years 
be made a beautiful thing, instead of an eyesore. The 
illustration shows such a house that has been planted 
with Crimson Rambler and other free-growing Roses. 
Larch poles, connected by top rails, have been placed 
round it. The spreading branches of the Roses will 
reach out over the rails, and the whole thing will 
become a house of Roses. Not only will it be beau- 
tiful, but the deep masses of leafy and flowery 
branches will keep off the sun-heat, which, without 
such a shield, makes these small wooden buildings 
insufferably hot in summer. 

Many an old farmhouse is now being converted 
into a dwelling-house for another class of resident, 
and wise are they who consider well before they pull 
down the old farm buildings. For even a tarred 









shed, with a thatched or tiled roof, may soon be 
made beautiful by a planting of these beneficent 
Rambling Roses. Many of the buildings, shed or 
barn, cowhouse or stable, may still have the weather- 
boarding undefiled by gas-tar, and if so, its silvery 
grey colour is a ground whose becoming quality can 
hardly be beaten for tender pink and rosy Roses. 
Dead or unprofitable old orchard trees, too, may 
have their smaller branches sawn off and be 
planted with Roses. If they are shaky, some stout 
oaken props, also rose-clothed, will steady them for 
many a year. When once these Roses get hold and 
grow vigorously the amount of their yearly growth 
is surprising. 

Generally among these farm buildings there is, in 
the enclosed yard, a simple shelter for animals, made 
of posts supporting a lean-to roof, either against a 
barn or a high wall. This, without alteration, or 
merely by knocking through the two ends, may be 
made into a delightful shaded cloister, each post 
having its Rose. There would not need to be a 
climbing Rose to every post, but a climbing and a 
pillar Rose alternately. The lean-to roof would need 
some slight trellising, the rougher the better. No 
material for this is so good as oak, not sawn but 
split. Split wood lasts much longer than sawn, as it 
rends in its natural lines of cleavage and leaves fairly 
smooth edges. Sawing cuts cruelly across and across 
the fibres, leaving a fringe or ragged pile of torn and 
jagged fibre which catches and holds the wet and 
invites surface decay. 


These farm places have also commonly old field 
hedges, some one of which may become the boundary 
of the new pleasure garden. If it is rightly placed 
for shelter or for its original purpose of a field fence, 
or for its newer service, it is better not to grub it 
up, but to fill its gaps and weak places with free- 
growing Roses. If it has Thorns, either Blackthorn or 
Whitethorn, and Hollies, both of some height, it is a 
chance to be thankful for of showing how these grand 
rambling Roses will rush up and tumble out, and make 
lovely dainty wreaths and heavy-swagging garlands of 
their own wild will. We have only to place them 
well and show them how to go, to lead and persuade 
them just at the beginning. In two years' time they 
will understand what is wanted, and will gladly do 
it of themselves in many ways of their own — ways 
much better than any that we could possibly have 

Then there is no end to the beautiful ways of 
making Rose arbours and tunnels, or Rose houses for 
the children. Dead trees or any rough branching 
wood can easily be put up and spiked together to 
make the necessary framework, and the Roses will 
take to it gladly. An old dead Apple-tree, if it 
happens to stand where an arbour is wanted, need 
not even be moved ; another bit of trunk can be put 
up eight feet away, and the branches of the standing 
one sawn off, all but those that go the right way. 
These branches can be worked in to form the top, 
keeping a stout, slightly curved piece for the front 
top beam. The Roses seem to delight in such a 






One of the many ways in which the splendid en- 
thusiasm for good gardening — an enthusiasm which 
only grows stronger as time goes on — is showing itself, 
is in the general desire to use beautiful Roses more 
worthily. We are growing impatient of the usual 
Rose garden, generally a sort of target of concentric 
rings of beds placed upon turf, often with no special 
aim at connected design with the portions of the 
garden immediately about it, and filled with plants 
without a thought of their colour effect or any other 
worthy intention. 

Now that there is such good and wonderfully varied 
material to be had, it is all the more encouraging 
to make Rose gardens more beautiful, not with beds 
of Roses alone — many a Rose garden is already too 
extensive in its display of mere beds — but to consider 
the many different ways in which Roses not only 
consent to grow but in which they live most happily 
and look their best. Beds we have had, and arches 
and bowers, but very little as yet in the whole range 
of possible Rose garden beauty. 

The Rose garden at its best admits of many more 
beauties than these alone. Of the Roses we have 
now to choose from some are actual species, and 


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many of them so nearly related to species that their 
wild way of growth may well be taken into account 
and provided for. Thus the beautiful milk-white Rosa 
Brunoni of the Himalayas is at its best climbing 
into some thin growth of bush or small tree. Many 
of the numerous new rambling Roses, children of 
another Himalayan Rose, that have been hybridised 
with other species, and again crossed to gain variety 
of colour and shape, willingly lend themselves to the 
same treatment. Many Roses, even some of those 
that one thinks of as rather stiff bushes, the Scotch 
Briers, Rosa lucida and the like, only want the oppor- 
tunity of being planted on some height, as on the 
upper edge of a retaining wall, to show that they 
are capable of exhibiting quite unexpected forms of 
growth and gracefulness, for they will fling themselves 
down the face of the wall and flower all the better 
for the greater freedom. The beautiful and fast- 
growing Rosa wichuriajta, with its neat white bloom 
and polished foliage, will grow either up a support 
or down a steep bank, or festoon the face of a wall 
far below its roots, and to the adventurously minded 
amateur disclose whole ranges of delightful possi- 
bilities ; while, stimulated by the increased demand, 
growers are every year producing new hybrids and 
clever crosses derived from this accommodating plant. 
So the thought comes that the Rose garden ought 
to be far more beautiful and interesting than it has 
ever yet been. In the hope of leading others to 
do more justice to the lovely plants that are only 
waiting to be well used, I will describe and partly 


illustrate such a Rose garden as I think should be 
made. In this, as in so much other gardening, it 
is much to be desired that the formal and free ways 
should both be used. If the transition is not too abrupt 
the two are always best when brought into harmoni- 
ous companionship. The beauty of the grand old 
gardens of the Italian Renaissance would be shorn of 
half their impressive dignity and of nearly all their 
poetry, were they deprived of the encircling forest- 
like thickets of Arbutus, Evergreen Oak, and other 
native growths. The English Rose garden that I 
delight to dream of is also embowered in native 
woodland, that shall approach it nearly enough to 
afford a passing shade in some of the sunny hours, 
though not so closely as to rob the Roses at the root. 

My Rose garden follows the declivities of a tiny, 
shallow valley, or is formed in such a shape. It is 
approached through a short piece of near home wood- 
land of dark-foliaged trees, for the most part ever- 
greens ; Yew, Holly, and Scotch Fir. The approach may 
come straight or at a right angle ; a straight approach 
is shown in the plan. As it belongs to a house of 
classic design and of some importance, it will be 
treated, as to its midmost spaces, with the wrought 
stone steps and balustraded terraces, and such other 
accessories as will agree with those of the house itself. 

The bottom of the little valley will be a sward of 
beautifully kept turf, only broken by broad flights 
of steps and dwarf walls where the natural descent 
makes a change of level necessary. The turf is some 
thirty feet wide ; then on either side rises a retaining 






wall crowned by a balustrade. At the foot of this, 
on the further side, is a terrace whose whole width is 
about twenty-four feet. Then another and higher 
retaining wall rises to nearly the level of the wooded 
land above. This has no parapet or balustrade. The 
top edge of the wall is protected by bushy and free- 
growing Roses, and a walk runs parallel with it, 
bounded by rambling Roses on both sides. On the 
wooded side many of the Roses run up into the trees, 
while below Sweet-brier makes scented brakes and 

The lawn level has a narrow border at the foot of 
the wall where on the sunnier side are Roses that are 
somewhat tender and not very large in growth. On 
the terraces there are Roses again, both on the side 
of the balustrade and on that of the retaining wall. 
The balustrade is not covered up or smothered with 
flowery growths, but here and there a Rose from 
above comes foaming up over its edge and falls 
over, folding it in a glorious mantle of flower and 
foliage. It is well where this occurs that the same 
Rose should be planted below and a little farther 
along, so that at one point the two join hands and 
grow together. 

So there would be the quiet lawn spaces below, 
whose cool green prepares the eye by natural laws 
for the more complete enjoyment of the tinting of 
the flowers whether strong or tender, and there is 
the same cool green woodland carried far upward for 
the outer framing of the picture. In no other way 
that I can think of would beautiful groupings of Roses 


be so enjoyably seen, while the whole thing, if 
thoroughly well designed and proportioned, would 
be one complete picture of beauty and delight. 

In a place that binds the designer to a greater 
degree of formality the upper terrace might be more 
rigidly treated, and the woodland, formed of Yew or 
Cypress, more symmetrically placed. On the other 
hand there is nothing to prevent the whole scheme 
being simplified and worked out roughly, with un- 
dressed stones for the steps and dry walling for the 
retaining walls, so as to be in keeping with the other 
portions of the grounds of any modest dwelling. 

If a Rose garden is to be made on a level space 
where any artificial alteration of the ground is inex- 
pedient, it will be found a great enhancement to 
the beauty of the Roses and to the whole effect of the 
garden if it is so planned that dark shrubs and trees 
bound it on all sides. The plan shows a simple 
scheme where this is arranged. A central space of 
turf has Rose borders in the form shown. Outside 
is a wide grass walk, and beyond that dark shrubs. 
On the four sides grassy ways pass into the garden ; 
while the whole outer edge of the Rose beds is set with 
posts connected by chains on which are pillar and 
free-growing cluster Roses placed alternately. 

At each outer and inner angle of the design will 
be a free-growing Ayrshire or one of the now nume- 
rous Rambler group. Each of these will furnish the 
length of chain on its right and left, while Pillar 
Roses will clothe the posts between. 

State A -iid I,,., 


AT WOOD ED'lE, as described at p. 69. 


As described at p. 69. 


The background of dark trees is so important that 
I venture to dwell upon it with some degree of per- 
sistence. Any one who has seen an Ayrshire Rose 
running wild into a Yew will recognise the value of 
the dark foliage as a ground for the tender blush 
white of the Rose ; and so it is with the Rose garden 
as a whole. 

The wisdom of this treatment is well known in 
all other kinds of gardening, but with the tender 
colourings of so many Roses it has a special value. 
It should be remembered that a Rose garden can 
never be called gorgeous ; the term is quite unfitting. 
Even in high Rose tide, when fullest of bloom, 
what is most clearly felt is the lovable charm of 
Rose beauty, whether of the whole scene, or of 
some delightful detail or incident or even individual 

The gorgeousness of brilliant bloom, fitly arranged, 
is for other plants and other portions of the garden : 
here we do not want the mind disturbed or distracted 
from the beauty and delightfulness of the Rose. From 
many of the Rose gardens of the usual unsatisfactory 
type other kinds of gardening are seen, or perhaps 
a distant view, or a carriage road, or there is some 
one or other distracting influence that robs the Roses 
of the full exercise of their charm. Even in a walled 
space, unless this is darkly wooded round, it is 
better not to have Roses on the walls themselves, 
but rather to have the walls clothed with dark 

The beneficent eflFect of neighbouring dark trees 


may be seen in the picture of the Rose arches. Any 
trees of dark or dusky foUage serve well as Rose 
backgrounds, whether of the greyish tone of the 
common Juniper or the richer greens of Thuya or 
Cypress, Yew or Holly. 

In the few instances that can be given in a book 
it is impossible to consider a hundredth part of the 
many varying circumstances of different gardens. 
Each place has its own character, and the choice 
of site for the Rose garden will necessarily be 
governed by the natural conditions of the place. 

One illustration shows a Rose border made just 
under a terrace wall. The ground to the right slopes 
too sharply to allow of a broader grass walk without 
having another retaining wall below ; had it not been 
for this, a space of turf as wide again, between the 
border and the Rose hedge, would have been better. 
Here also is plainly seen the value of the dark ever- 
green trees above. 





There is scarcely any Rose that we can wish to have 
in our gardens that is not also delightful in the cut 
state. A china bowl filled with well-grown Hybrid 
Perpetuals, grand of colour and sweetly scented, is 
a room decoration that can hardly be beaten both 
for beauty and for the pleasure it gives, whether in 
a sitting-room or on the breakfast table. The only 
weak point about cut Roses is that their life is short. 
The day they are cut they are at their best, the next 
day the}' will do, but the third day they lose colour, 
scent, and texture. Still it is so delightful to any 
one who lives a fairly simple life in the country to 
go out and cut a bunch of Roses, that the need for 
their often renewal is only an impulse towards the 
fulfilment of a household duty of that pleasant class 
that is all delight and no drudgery. 

Tea Roses last quite a day longer than Hybrid 
Perpetuals, but they need more careful arrangement, 
for many of them have rather weak stalks and hang 
their heads. Still these may be avoided and only 
strong-stalked ones used. In most cases they are 
best by themselves, without the addition of any other 
flowers. In my own practice the only notable ex- 
ception I make to this general rule is with the 


Cabbage and Moss Roses, the Damasks, and other old 
garden kuids. Whether it is that they are so closely 
associated with what one considers the true old 
garden flowers, or for some reason of their own 
ordaining, I could not say, but about midsummer I 
have great pleasure in putting together Cabbage, Moss, 
and Damask Roses with Honeysuckle and white 
Pinks, and China Roses also with white Pinks. The 
combination of these few flowers, all of sweetest scent, 
seems to convey, both by sight and smell, the true 
sentiment of the old English garden of the best and 
simplest kind. 

Large Roses are top-heavy, and every one who is 
used to arranging flowers, must at some time or other 
have been vexed by a bunch of Roses carefully placed 
in a bowl conspiring together to fling themselves out 
of it all round at the same moment. It is well worth 
while to have wire frames made for the bowls that 
are generally in use. Two discs of wire netting with 
a top rim and three legs of stouter wire can be made 
by any whitesmith or ironmonger or by the ingenious 
amateur at home. The lower tier of netting should 
be an inch from the bottom of the bowl, to catch 
the lower end of the stalk. I have often used three 
garden pots, one mside another in a china bowl, thus 
making three concentric rings and "one centre for stalk 
space. Stiff greenery, like Box or Holly, kept low in 
the bowl out of sight, also makes a good foundation. 

Roses are best also with their own leaves, the chief 
exception to this being the beauty of red-tinted sum- 
mer shoots of Oak, which in July and August are 




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extremely harmonious with the colourings of the Teas 
and hybrid Chinas. Also in the autumn I like to 
use with my Roses some sprays of the wild Traveller's 
Joy {Clematis vitalba). 

Some of the free-growing Roses are beautiful cut 
quite long, even to a length of three to four feet. 
They are delightful decorations in rooms of fair size, 
arranged in some large deep jar that will hold plenty 
of water, not only for their sustenance, but as a 
weighty counterpoise to the flower - laden branches 
that will hang abroad rather far from the centre of 
gravity. Roses like Madame Alfred Carriere, that 
flower in loose bunches on long stems, and the 
crimson half - double Reine Olga de Wurtemberg, 
with its incomparable foliage that can. be cut almost 
any length, show by their natural way of growth 
how they must be arranged in long branching ways. 
The Ramblers and Ayrshires, too, are beautiful cut 
in yard-long branches, but are difBcult to arrange. 
Special ways have to be devised for overcoming their 
desire to swing round flower-side down. But placed 
high, on the shoulder of some cabinet about six feet 
from the ground, with the lovely clusters trending 
downward, they are charming and beautiful room 

Great care should be given to assorting the col- 
ours and in putting together kinds that have some 
afftnity of blood and harmony of tint. It is well 
never to mix Hybrid Perpetuals and Teas, except, 
perhaps, some of the more solid Teas of the Dijon 
class. But Roses well assorted are like a company 
of sympathetic friends — they better one another. 


It is always well to have two or three of the same 
range of colouring, with perhaps one harmonious 
departure, such as Madame Lambard, Papa Gontier, 
and Laurette Messimy, or G. Nabonnand, Vicountess 
Folkestone, and Hon. Edith Gilford, or Souvenir de 
Catherine Guillot, White Maman Cochet, and Anna 

The same suggestion will be found of use in arrang- 
ing them in beds, for a jarring mixture, such as one 
of the orange-copper Hybrid Teas, with kinds of cool 
pink and white, will have an unsatisfactory effect. 
Both may be lovely things, but they should not be 
placed together. But to learn to observe this — first 
of all to see that it makes a difference, then to become 
aware that it might be better, and finally to be dis- 
tinctly vexed with an inharmonious combination, these 
are all stages in growth of perception that should 
be gone through in the training of the Rose enthusiast's 
mind and eye. 

It is best and easiest to learn to do this with the cut 
flowers, and a pleasant task it is to have a quantity 
of mixed cut Roses and to lay them together in beau- 
tiful harmonies — best, perhaps, in some cool, shady 
place upon the grass — and then to observe what two 
or three, or three or four kinds, go best together, 
and to note it for further planting or indoor ar- 
rangement. Then, as an example of what is 
unsuitable, try a Captain Christy and a Madame 
Eugene Resal together, and see how two beautiful 
Roses can hurt each other by incompatibility of 
kind and colour. 



LADY EMILY PEEL (a>: oCd hlush-white garden Rose). TN SEPTEMBER. 




It is very surprising to find how few kinds of Roses 
are grown in gardens on this coast, and consequently 
a mere hst is rather disappointing, the fact being that 
it is the beauty and the abundance of their flowers 
that constitutes the charm rather than the very great 
variety of kinds. The cause is very easy to com- 
prehend. Those who care for their gardens do not 
as a rule come out much before Christmas, and leave 
at the latest by the middle of May, so that any Rose 
that does not flower freely during the late autumn or 
early spring is of little importance, however beautiful 
it may be. Moreover, the great sun power and the 
fatal Rose beetles that tear the petals to ribbons in 
May prevent the latest Roses being of real value, while 
the gorgeous blaze of Geraniums, Gazanias, Petunias, 
and such summer flowers destroys the tender tones of 
those Roses which bloom late. 

It is the climbing Roses that are the joy of the 
gardener here. They grow rampantly and flower 
profusely, whether they be grown trained to walls, 
pergolas, arches, pillars, and such like, or if they 
simply are planted near a tree, preferably an Olive 
or Cypress, and fling their sprays of blossom down 
from the very highest to the lowest branches, with 


never a pruning knife or gardener's shears to mar 
their native grace. 

The Banksian Roses must have the first place for 
beauty and abundance, though only the big white 
R. B. Fortunei is fairly perpetual, and decks its glossy 
evergreen foliage with isolated flowers through the 
whole winter. The single yellow Banksian Rose, in- 
troduced not more than twenty years ago from Italy, 
and first admired in Sir Thomas Hanbury's well- 
known garden at La Mortola, deserves a special notice, 
because it is fully three weeks earlier than the double 
forms in spring, and gives a delightful summer 
effect in the month of March in sunny situations, 
and is even more rampant and floriferous than any 
other member of the family, becoming a real tree 

There are two forms of the double yellow Banksian 
Rose. For richness of colour and beauty of flowering 
spray I think Jaune decidedly the best, and indeed, 
for its period of flower, the most effective of all. The 
second and less well known form — that I know as 
Jaune serin — has larger, paler flowers on longer 
stems, is decidedly less brilliant in effect, but has 
just the same delicate perfume the small double white 
exhales, and which is curiously enough denied by 
many people who are appreciative of other scents. 

The common double white Banksian Rose is the 
most abundant and ubiquitous of all, and is as much 
the ornament of trees, walls, pergolas, and pillars in 
the month of April and early May as the common 
Ivy is in more northern climates. It is everywhere, 


^.- , ■■ ■■■. ., 



and nowhere out of place, though it loses its leaves 
in the month of January. 

Rosa sinica, commonly called Rose Camellia on this 
coast (another eastern Rose), is an especial favourite 
here. Rampant in growth, abundant in its single 
white flowers, which first open in March, with thorny 
shoots whose red stems and glossy foliage enhances 
the purity of the petals, it heralds the arrival of spring, 
and prefers light and poor soils where many other 
Roses fail. Its new companion and hybrid, R. S. 
Anemone, promises to become even more beautiful, 
and being of a soft rose-du-Barri tint, will soon find 
its way everywhere, as there is no climbing Rose of its 
particular and lovely shade of colour. 

Rosa bracteata. — The Macartney Rose is rarely seen, 
as it flowers so late in spring, but as it blossoms well 
in autumn when R. sinica is barren, it should not be 
omitted. Its glossy, perfectly evergreen foliage is 
quite unique, and the long sprays tipped with its 
scented flowers in November are greatly admired. 

R. Marie Leonidas (a double form of this Rose) is 
the freest winter bloomer of this section. Most 
beautiful in a few gardens, it is not grown as much 
as it deserves, as it is not a flower for the market, 
which alone is the criterion of worth to French gar- 
deners. It should not be omitted by the amateur. 

R, Fortmiei. — To China again we are indebted for 
this lovely climber, perhaps in a sense the most 
notable of those yet mentioned, for it does not and 
cannot show its real beauty in northern gardens, 
where it needs shelter. Plant it near an Olive or 


C^'press, and in three or four years it will entirely 
cover the tree with a mantle of delicate sprays. Its 
flowers, lovely in shades of apricot and rose, contrast 
brilliantly with its apple-green and slender foliage. 
It is only a spring bloomer, but none the less indis- 
pensable on account of its grace and beauty. 

R. Cloth of Gold or Chromatella. — A grand Rose, so 
rarely seen now that it should not be forgotten. Its 
individual blooms are unsurpassed in size and colour 
by any yellow Rose, and its December flowers are 
most beautiful of all when in a rich soil and sheltered 
position. The fact that its lovely buds bruise so 
easil}'^, and that it is a special prey to mildew, are 
the reasons why it is now only to be found in a few 
gardens where it is extra happy. This is one of the 
Roses for which this coast was famous until the advent 
of Marechal Niel entirely displaced it. 

R. Marechal Niel. — " Good wine needs no bush " 
is specially applicable to this grandest of all yellow 
climbing Roses, for it advertises itself everywhere in 
every garden, and by autumn pruning produces even 
lovelier flowers in December than can be seen in May 
when grown on sunny terraces. For Rose arches and 
arcades it is indispensable, and contributes largely to 
the effect of luxuriant beauty. What a pity its flowers 
do not hold up their heads as R. Chro^natella does. 

R. Lamargue, with its lemon-centred and lemon- 
scented heads of flower, is the finest double white 
climbmg Rose yet raised, although it dates from sixty 
years ago, and is still fresh, young, and beautiful. It 
blooms so well in late autumn and again in early 




April, that it is found in every garden, and we who 
come out from England have a special admiration for 
its masses of white flower, because it refuses to show 
its real beauty out of doors in England, and grows 
too rampantly when under glass. 

Old Roses are, you will see, all my theme, so I feel 
no compunction in saying that the old Rose, Gloire des 
Rosomanes, semi-double though it be, is the only 
perfectly perpetual winter-blooming climbing red 
Rose yet raised. It is the only old Rose that is never 
flowerless throughout the severest weather on this 
coast, and it is particularly brilliant and fragrant both 
in autumn and in spring when the Banksian Roses 
need a rich red to contrast with their white and 
golden-buff tones. It is well known to many folk as 
the Bordighera Rose, though I do not know it is more 
abundant there than elsewhere. One of its seedlings, 
General Jacqueminot, is a household word, know^n 
and grown everywhere, and there are two more of 
its seedlings w^orth mention — Bardou Job, which has 
merit, though it is not a winter bloomer, and also the 
new Noella Nabonnand, which is a decided advance 
in size and beauty, and is said to be a really good 
winter-blooming deep red Rose, a desideratum in 
these parts. 

We all know the brilliant little China Rose Cramoisi 
Sup^rieur, but somehow I never saw in English 
gardens a good specimen of its variety or seedling 
Cramoisi Grimpant, and this latter is next in import- 
ance among climbing red Roses, for it will climb to 
fully twenty feet high, and cover itself with its rich 


crimson flowers all the winter through if only there 
be no frost. For hedges and pillars this is most 
decorative when it contrasts with the Banksian or 
Lamarque Roses, and forms a splendidly toned back- 
ground to all light-coloured Roses. 

Another climbing red Rose that I have never seen 
to advantage in England is heavily weighted by its 
senseless name, La France de 1889. Nevertheless, 
it is a very large, fragrant, and deep rose-red flower 
of great beauty, which makes prodigious shoots in 
autumn, and flowers by degrees, beginning at the top 
in December and continuing to do so lower down the 
long shoots throughout the season. It is of the very 
largest size, fragrant, and double, but I think it is 
capricious in some gardens, as beauties are apt to be. 

A Rose much seen I only mention to reprobate 
in this climate, that is, Reine Olga de Wurtemberg, 
which though so good in England is here so fleeting 
and ugly in colour that I regret to see it, even though 
it be only for one week in early spring. Not so 
Marie Lavallee, a delightful blush pink, semi-double 
climbing Rose, the latest and the earliest of its colour, 
vigorous and fresh in every way. 

Duchesse de Nemours is a fragrant and bright pink 
climber, double, and of fine size and form, which is 
only to be found in a few old gardens, but is far too 
good a Rose to pass by. In December, and again in 
May, it will produce a wonderful effect. It seems less 
easy to propagate from cuttings than other Roses, and 
is to be found in only one nurseryman's list, but I am 
glad to say its merit has been recognised, and a stock 


of it will, I believe, soon again be obtainable. To my 
fancy it is far preferable to the deeper coloured Reine 
Marie Henriette, so very common all along the 
Riviera, and which in December, mingling with Reve 
d'Or, has a great charm, even if it be not the very 
best of all. 

R. La Grifferaie, which we seem only to know as a 
stock for other Roses, is a very brilliant and luxuriant 
climber in late spring, intensely bright pink in its 
clusters. The growth and foliage of this Rose are 
prodigious, and it requires a large space to do itself 
justice ; were it perpetual it would rank as one of 
the best. Waltham Climber No. 3 shows to great 
advantage on this coast. Its long strong shoots are 
clothed with its scarlet-crimson flowers early in spring, 
and give a fair sprinkling of blooms continuously 
during winter when grown on a sunny pergola. 

No mention has been made of Gloire de Dijon and 
its many seedlings, for they do not show to as great 
advantage as in more northern gardens. 

Belle Lyonnaise is fairly good, but there is one 
of more modern date, Duchesse d'Auerstadt, which 
proves the exception to the rule, and is most excellent 
in every way. From its growth it is evidently from 
Reve d'Or on one side, and is quite the finest, freest, 
and best of all golden-yellow Tea Roses of climbing 
habit. It will no doubt entirely displace Reve d'Or, 
being its superior in every way, and this, to those who 
know that old Rose on this coast, is saying much. 

Noisette Roses. — After Lamarque, which has already 
received its due notice, Jaune Desprez must be men- 


tioned on account of its perfume and beauty in 
spring. Curiously enough it is not always a winter 
bloomer, but it still luxuriantly adorns many an old 

Ideal is essentially a Rose for this coast. In spring 
it even rivals Fortune's Yellow, but it comes in several 
weeks later and is deeper in its rosy tones. Did it but 
bloom at all in winter it would be unsurpassable. 

Dr. Rouges is the most intensely brilliant shade of 
orange-red that I know, and when fully proved will be 
invaluable as a climber when its winter blooming is 
established. The rich claret-red shoots in January 
are almost as brilliant as any flower could be. 

William A. Richardson no longer climbs here, but 
flowers splendidly in winter as a straggling bush. 

Pink Rover must certainly not be omitted from 
the list of climbing Roses, for there are so few of its 
fresh and lovely shade of colour. It is very sweet- 
scented, blooms abundantly before Christmas, and 
wherever grown is at once a favourite. It seems to 
revel in the conditions here. 

Griiss an Teplitz, a seedling between Cramoisi 
Grimpant and Gloire des Rosomanes, is another 
very delightful semi-climbing Rose on this coast. 
Most brilliant red in colour, sweet-scented and free, 
it has hardly yet been sufficiently planted, so its 
merits are not fully established. 

Hybrid Teas are decidedly the most in vogue now, 
owing not only to their size and beauty, but to the 
length of stalk with which they may be cut. As 
garden Roses they are equally valuable. Caroline 


Testout entirely takes the place of La France, which 
never showed itself to perfection on this coast. 
Marquise Litta has made its mark also, and is very 
rich and bright in colour during the winter. Gloire 
Lyonnaise and Captain Christy are splendid winter 
bloomers, but the flowers are not considered so 
valuable for the market. Belle Siebrecht is also 
becoming a very popular Rose, while Mme. Jules 
Grolez is considered worthless, for its petals are soft 
and easily spoilt, and it does not grow with anything 
like the same vigour. There is no doubt that many 
of the Roses that do well in English gardens do not 
enjoy a more southern climate, and it is curious to 
remark how the descriptions of French raisers refer 
generally to Roses grown in a hotter climate than 
England, so that their descriptions are not so likely 
to mislead in the south as those in the north are apt 
to imagine. 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses are little grown, and are 
chiefly used for late autumn cutting out of doors. 
For the first three months of the year they are now 
flowered under glass, so that they can be cut with 
the long stems required in France. 1 need only 
mention Paul Neyron (so fine in December), Ulrich 
Brunner, Baroness Rothschild, Mrs. John Laing, 
General Jacqueminot, and Eclair as the best and 
most useful here. The growth of Roses under glass 
for market in January, February, and early March 
has become a great industry, and is largely displacing 
the hardy winter-blooming Teas grown on the sunny 


Tea Roses, which not only bear but enjoy the sum- 
mer heat and drought, flowering freely in November 
and December after the autumn rains and pruning, 
are cultivated not only in gardens, but as a field 
crop, and the December crop of bloom is the most 
valuable, so that everything yields to that. To name 
any but the most valuable is unnecessary here, 
and, roughly speaking, Nabonnand's catalogue of his 
own seedlings represents what has been most grown 
during the last twenty years. Of these, however, 
many are obsolete. 

Isabelle Nabonnand is one of the few really good 
winter Roses I have never seen grown in England. 
One of the oldest, it still is worth growing in any 
garden. Its blush-centred white blooms are fairly 
double, and yet open freely through the winter. 

General Schablikine has at last found its way to 
England. For many years this was the only rose- 
coloured Tea to be depended on in winter. Now 
that glass is so much used, and larger and longer 
stalked blooms are required, it is only used as 
a decorative garden Rose. Marie Van Houtte is 
another old Rose that is gradually being superseded, 
as its flowers obstinately refuse to hold up their 
heads, but its beauty and freedom make it indispens- 
able in the winter garden. Paul Nabonnand has for 
some years reigned supreme from the beauty and 
freedom of its pale pink blooms in December. It is 
the Rose that with Schablikine produces the most 
summer-like effect during the winter. Fiametta Nabon- 
nand is a very good flesh-white Rose, as indeed are all 



rf r 




those that are named after the Nabonnand family, 
particularly for winter blooming. Papa Gontier, so 
bold in growth, so rich in petal, is the most useful 
of all winter Roses for cut bloom. Its size and 
brilliant rose-pink colour are remarkable in this 
climate. I have never seen it in its true character 
in England. The fields and hedges of Safrano, the 
first of all winter-blooming Roses, deserve a passing 
mention, though now, save as a hedge Rose, it is 
not worth a place. Its abundance of flowers about 
Christmastide is its chief attraction, and at that season 
it is still sent in quantity to northern cities. 

Antoine Rivoire is the Rose that has made a mark 
lately, both in the garden and in the grower's ground. 
Its beauty and fresh pink and white colouring (white 
in December), and its fine vigorous stems crowned 
with bold upright flowers, have at once raised it to 
high favour. It looks as if it were a cross between 
Captain Christy and some old Tea like Rubens, and 
is better than either. Mme. Cadeau Ramey is a 
very sweet and lovely garden Rose, but has not as 
yet at all the same vogue, being of the Devoniensis 

The China Roses and Hybrid Chinas do not find 
favour here, they are too fleeting and too thin, and 
Tea Roses give us more beauty. For instance, Beaute 
Inconstante, a Tea, has not only even more brilliant 
orange-scarlet tones than any hybrid China, but 
it is so free and hardy, as well as solid in petal, 
that it puts to shame its cousins that are so welcome 
in northern gardens. 


Cramoisi Superieur is lovely as a dwarf hedge, 
but is not nearly so good a winter bloomer as the 
climbing form Cramoisi Grimpant ; so it is in hedge- 
rows and avenues that the glowing masses of this 
are seen in company with the pale pink Indica Major, 
which here takes the place of the Hawthorn hedge. 









To hasty or otherwise improper planting may be more 
often traced the unsatisfactory condition of Roses in 
gardens large or small than to all other causes put 
together. The term " planting " as here used is a com- 
prehensive one, as it is intended to include the choice 
of the position of the Rose garden, the preparation 
of the beds, as well as the actual planting of the 
Roses themselves. This question, then, of planting, 
is one of supreme importance. 

Position. — The best site for Roses is an open yet 
sheltered one, though as little shut in by trees or 
buildings as may be. On the other hand it must not 
be too much exposed, for although Roses delight in a 
free atmosphere they have a great objection to be fre- 
quently swept by high winds. Shelter from the north 
and east is most necessary, but exposure to strong 
winds from almost any quarter is undesirable. Bear- 
ing these facts in mind, the position best complying 
with them should be chosen, and, if necessary, a high 
hedge or belt of trees be planted on the side where 
shelter is most needed. Care must however be taken 
that this hedge, or tree belt, is sufficiently distant 
from the Roses to prevent the possibility of its roots 
finding their way at some future time into the Rose 


beds. One of the best hedges for the purpose may 
be formed of the common Arbor-vitae, as it is of 
tolerably quick growth, makes an excellent screen, 
and its roots extend but a short distance on each 
side. Wherever it is possible Roses should be allowed 
a separate bed or beds to themselves, and not be 
planted with other flowers. Where it is intended to 
grow a lar^e number of Rose plants, beds might with 
advantage be made in the virgin soil of some paddock 
or other piece of pasture land, such as may frequently 
be found adjoining country gardens. 

Soil. — A deep, strong loam is the very best soil for 
Roses — land on which an exceptionally good crop of 
wheat could be grown. But as this ideal soil for a 
Rose garden is seldom to be found ready to hand, an 
endeavour must be made to supply the existing soil 
with those ingredients and physical qualities in which 
it is most deficient. For instance, should it be a 
stiff clay, it must, if necessary, be drained. If not 
so retentive as to require draining, a liberal quantity 
of burnt earth and long stable manure, sand, &c., 
must be incorporated with it. If on the other hand 
the existing soil be too light and porous, some heavier 
loam should be mixed with it, and cow instead of 
stable manure introduced. If on examination the soil 
be found not only porous but also shallow, some 
of the chalk, gravel, or sand beneath must be entirely 
removed and replaced by the heaviest soil, not absolute 
clay, obtainable in the neighbourhood. 

The Preparation of a Rose Bed. — When the prepara- 
tion of the bed is completed it should contain suitable 


and well-enriched soil to the depth of at least 
two feet. Roses prefer a somewhat stiff soil, and yet 
not one so retentive as to prevent any superfluous 
moisture from passing readily away from the neigh- 
bourhood of their roots. In a soil which is too light 
the plants are unable to avail themselves as they 
should of the nourishment brought down to their 
roots by rain or artificial watering. Such soils more- 
over become unduly heated in hot and dry weather — 
whereas, above everything, Roses delight in a con- 
sistently cool root-run. Soils which quickly feel the 
changes of temperature above ground from cold to 
heat and heat to cold cannot be regarded as suitable 
for Roses. 

In the case of a moderately good Rose soil the beds 
should be thus prepared. The earth from one end of 
the bed should be removed to the depth of a foot, 
and three feet wide, and wheeled to some spot close 
to the other end of it. Having taken out this trench, 
the bed should then be bastard-trenched throughout 
to the depth of two feet ; that is to say, it should be 
dug over, but none of the lower soil brought to the 
surface. When performing this operation a liberal 
quantity of manure — farmyard manure for preference 
— should be incorporated with the soil, filling" in the 
last trench with the earth which had been previously 
wheeled there. This will make a Rose bed sufficiently 
good for all ordinary purposes. Should, however, 
the bed be required for Roses intended to produce 
exhibition blooms, it will be well to loosen the soil 
with a fork at the bottom of each trench, and on 


this loosened soil to place, grass downwards, the top 
spit of an old pasture. Then in addition to the farm- 
yard manure some half-inch bones should be mixed 
evenly with the soil as the trenching proceeds, together 
with some turfy loam, for there is nothing which will 
so greatly improve almost any soil for Roses as a 
liberal supply of fibrous loam. If possible the beds 
should be completed in August or September, so that 
the soil in them may have some chance of settling 
down before the Rose plants are ready for removal to 
their new quarters in November. 

Staking out the Beds. — As soon as the preparation 
of the bed is completed it will be well to make a rough 
plan of it on paper and indicate upon it the position 
that each Rose is intended to occupy. This can 
readily be done by arranging that the dwarf plants 
be tw^o feet and the standards three feet apart. These 
distances will answer admirably for plants intended 
for the production of exhibition blooms ; but for Roses 
for ordinary garden or home decoration the distances 
between the plants might with advantage be increased 
to two feet six inches for dwarfs and to three feet 
six inches for standards. In the case of varieties 
described in the catalogues as "very vigorous," and 
which are intended to be grown as bushes, the plants 
must be five or even six feet apart. 

The Treatment of Rose Plants when received from the 
Nurseries. — When unpacking Roses, care should be 
taken that neither the roots nor the branches are 
injured, and on no account should the roots be 
allowed to become in any way dry. As soon as 


separated, the plants should be "heeled in" ; that is to 
say, a shallow trench should be made in the kitchen 
garden or other convenient spot, and the roots of 
the new Rose plants be placed in it, and afterwards 
watered and completely covered with soil. When 
heeling the plants in, it will be advisable to place them 
in the trench in the order in which they are to be 
afterwards arranged in the beds, so that the required 
varieties may be readily removed from the trench as 
they are wanted without disturbing the rest. If the 
weather be frosty at the time the plants arrive, it will 
be well not to unpack them at all, but to leave them 
in their straw bundles until the weather changes and 
they can be properly heeled in. If for any reason the 
package be unduly delayed in transit and the bark on 
the shoots presents a shrivelled appearance, a deeper 
trench should be dug, and the plants, branches and 
all, placed lengthways in it and completely buried. 
When removed from the trench in three days' time the 
shoots will be found to have recovered their freshness. 
The Actual Planting. — This can be undertaken at any 
time between the beginning of November and the 
end of March, but the best time of all is early in 
November. Should the ground be sodden or frozen 
when the Roses arrive, the planting must be deferred 
until in the one case the superfluous moisture has 
passed into the subsoil, and in the other until the 
frost is quite out of the ground. In order to prevent 
the exposure of the roots to sunshine or drying winds 
it will be a good plan to take only a few plants at a time 
from the place where they have been heeled in and 


to place a mat over them when brought to the side of 
the bed. A square hole for each plant should be 
made, not more than six inches deep and sufficiently 
large to hold the roots when spread out horizontally. 
A plant should then be taken from beneath the mat- 
ting and placed in the hole, taking care to spread out 
the roots evenly all round. Some fine soil, free from 
manure, should next be worked with the hand between 
the roots and above them to the depth of three inches, 
and afterwards trodden down with moderate firmness, 
so as not to bruise the roots. After adding more soil, 
that in the hole should again be pressed down, more 
firmly this time, and a final treading given when the 
hole is filled up. Firm planting is of the greatest 
importance to the after welfare of the plants. In 
planting Roses intended for exhibition, or where extra 
attention can be given them, it will be well to place a 
little leaf-mould at the bottom of each hole, and to 
work in, among and above the roots, a few inches of 
the same material instead of the fine soil. Failing 
leaf-mould, some finely chopped fibrous loam may be 
used ; if of a somewhat gritty nature so much the 
better. In each case a small handful of bone-dust 
should be sprinkled over the layer of leaf-mould 
or fibrous loam. The principal advantage of these 
additions is that they enable the plants to become 
more quickly established, and also allow of the 
planting being proceeded with, when, owing to the 
wet nature of the soil in the beds, it would not be 
otherwise practicable. No manure should be allowed 
to come in contact with the roots themselves at the 



time of planting. The roots when they become active 
will soon find out the manure and appreciate it, but 
in a dormant state it is more like poison than food to 

Planting Climbing or Pillar Roses. — These strong 
growing varieties are often treated as if they could 
take care of themselves and therefore required less 
care in planting than other Roses, whereas the con- 
trary is the case. The hole made to receive them 
should be two feet six inches square and two feet 
deep. The existing soil, if fairly good, should be 
enriched with a liberal addition of farmyard manure, 
and the planting proceeded with as described in the 
previous paragraph. If the natural soil, however, be 
poor and thin some of this should be removed 
altogether and better soil substituted. The reason 
why these extra vigorous Roses require a larger 
quantity of good soil is because the roots have to 
support a much larger plant, and as a rule they are 
intended to occupy the same position for a great 
number of years. 

Staking and Labelling. — All standard Roses should 
be firmly staked as soon as planted, or better still, the 
stake should be driven into the centre of the hole 
made to receive the Rose before the latter is planted. 
The upper part of the climbing Roses should be also 
fastened either to the support up which they are 
intended to be trained or to a temporary stake at the 
time of planting. Ordinary dwarf Roses will not 
require staking if planted firmly as directed, and if 
any extra long shoots they may have are shortened. 


All Roses as soon as planted should be labelled. 
Permanent metal labels may be obtained already 
stamped with the name of almost any Rose of 
Mr. J. Pinches, 3 Crown Buildings, Crown Street, 
Camberwell, S.E. 



There are few things connected with Rose culture 
so Uttle understood by amateurs and gardeners 
generally as pruning ; and it must be acknowledged 
that the number of different kinds of Roses, and the 
very different treatment many of them require at the 
hands of the pruner, cannot but make this operation 
seem at first sight a very puzzling one. The following 
simple directions will, however, serve to show that 
it is not nearly so complicated as it is generally 
thought to be. 

Mr. W. F. Cooling, in an excellent paper read 
before the National Rose Society in 1898, very 
cleverly separates the numerous classes of Roses into 
two broad and distinct divisions. In the first of these 
divisions he places the Hybrid Perpetuals, Hybrid Teas, 
and Teas — all of which (the climbing varieties alone 
excepted) require more or less hard pruning ; while 
in the second division we find the Hybrid Sweet-briers, 
the Austrian Briers, all the extra vigorous and climb- 
ing Roses and many garden or decorative Roses, 
which, although of comparatively dwarf habit, need 
little spring pruning, or none at all. 

Before proceeding to treat of the various kinds 
of Roses more in detail it may be well to point out 


a few considerations which apply to the art of prun- 
ing generally. In the first place, the object of 
pruning is to add increased vigour to the plant, and 
at the same time to regulate its growth. It is difficult 
to understand at first, but nevertheless perfectly true, 
that the more severely a Rose plant is pruned the 
stronger will be the shoots which result from that 
apparently murderous treatment. There is also 
another general rule which naturally arises out of 
the foregoing, and that is the weaker the plant the 
more closely it should be cut back, and the more 
vigorous it is the longer should the shoots be left. 
As a matter of fact, pruning consists of two operations 
which are altogether distinct. Firstly, thinning out 
all the decayed, crowded and otherwise useless shoots ; 
secondly, the pruning proper, that is to say, the 
shortening back of the shoots that remain after the thin- 
ning-out process has been completed. There is no Rose 
that does not from time to time require some thinning 
out, but there are many which require very little, if 
any, shortening back. When removing the useless 
shoots they should be cut clean out, either down to 
the base of the plant or to the shoot from which 
they spring, as the case may be. Then again, in the 
case of dwarf or bush Roses, the pruner has to decide 
whether he requires a small number of extra large 
flowers or a larger number of moderate-sized ones. 
If the former, both the thinning out and pruning 
must be severe, whereas in the other case rather more 
shoots should be allowed to remain, and these may 
be left longer. After a very cold winter the pruner 








will find that, except in the case of quite hardy 
varieties, he has little choice in the matter of pruning, 
the keen knife of the frost having come before him 
and already pruned his Roses after its own ruthless 
fashion. In this case all the dead shoots should be 
cut away, and those that remain be afterwards 
examined. At first sight they may appear altogether 
uninjured, but on cutting them it will be seen that 
scarcely any sound wood is anywhere to be found. 
The best test of frost injuries is the colour of the pith. 
If this be white, cream-coloured, or even slightly 
stained, the wood may be regarded as sufficiently 
sound to cut back to, but if the pith be brown 
sounder wood must be sought for, even if this be 
only met with beneath the surface of the beds. 

Armed with a pruning knife, which should be of 
medium size and kept always with a keen edge, an 
easy pair of gardening gloves, a hone on which to 
sharpen the knife, and a kneeling pad, the pruner 
will require nothing more except a small saw, which 
will prove of great service in removing extra large 
shoots and dead stumps. A really good secateur may 
be used instead of a knife if preferred. In pruning, the 
cut should be always made almost immediately above 
a dormant bud pointing outwards. In all but an 
exhibitor's garden the best time to prune Roses is 
early in April. 

I. Roses which require to be more or less closely 
pruned. — Under this heading is included at least 
three-fourths of the Roses most frequently grown 


in gardens at the present time as dwarf plants. All 
the weak and moderate - growing varieties must be 
pruned hard each year, and also all plants, with few 
exceptions, intended for the production of extra 
large flowers. But those Roses which have been 
planted for the decoration of the garden, or for the 
production of cut flowers, need not be so -severely 
dealt with, while those planted as Rose bushes will 
require comparatively light pruning. 

Hybrid Perpetuals. — The first year after planting 
all the dead, sappy and weakly shoots should be cut 
clean out, and those remaining left from three to six 
inches in length, whatever the variety may be. This 
hard pruning is necessary the first spring, but in the 
following years it need not be so severe. The dead, 
sappy, weakly and worn-out shoots should, as before, 
be cut clean out, also some of the older ones and 
any others where they are too crowded, more par- 
ticularly those in the centre of the plant. The object 
kept in view should be an even distribution of the 
shoots allowed to remain over the entire plant, except 
in the centre, which should be kept fairly open to 
admit light and air. In pruning, the shoots may be 
left from three inches to one foot in length, according 
to the condition of the wood, the strength of the 
plant, and the object for which the blooms are 
required. Provided that the frosts of the previous 
winter months will allow, that the plants are suffi- 
ciently strong, and that the shoots are not permitted 
to become in any way crowded, the upper shoots 
may be as much as three feet above the ground. In 









this way good-sized bushes may in a few years be 
obtained, which will form handsome objects in the 
garden and yield a large number of good flowers. 
By similar treatment the more vigorous varieties in 
this and other sections may be induced to become 
pillar Roses, or even to climb some distance up 
a wall. It is the want of hardiness in many of the 
Roses of the present day, that are usually grown as 
dwarf plants, which alone stands in the way of their 
suitability for the formation of handsome bushes 
or for their employment as climbers and pillar 

Hybrid Teas, — The pruning of the Hybrid Teas 
should be carried out on similar lines to those re- 
commended for the Hybrid Perpetuals, only it should 
be less severe. Indeed, in the case of varieties like 
La France, which are of sufficiently strong growth 
to allow of this being done, better results are obtained 
by moderate thinning out, and rather light pruning, as 
is recommended in the case of the Hybrid Perpetuals, 
where good-sized bushes are required. 

Teas and Noisettes. — Owing to the tender character 
of their shoots, it is only after a mild winter that the 
pruner has much choice in the method of pruning. 
In any case, all the decayed, weak, and sappy shoots 
should be cut clean out, and where there are enough 
sound shoots left they should be shortened back one- 
half their length. 

Bourbons. — The Bourbons should be pruned in the 
same way as advised for the strong-growing varieties 
of the Hybrid Perpetuals and Hybrid Teas. 


Provence, Moss, and China. — These hardy Roses 
should be well thinned out, to prevent their growths 
becoming crowded, and the remaining shoots short- 
ened one-half their length. 

2. Roses which require very little pruning. — To 

whatever section a Rose may belong, if it be grown as 
a climber, or as an arch or pillar, it will not do to 
cut it back hard, or it will bear but few if any flowers. 
But there are also certain other Roses which, although 
not of extra strong growi;h, will not flower satisfac- 
torily if cut back at all severely. It is by cutting away 
the flowering wood of such kinds that the greatest 
mistakes in pruning usually occur. 

Climbing, Pillar, and other strong-growing Roses. — 
In the spring these need very little attention beyond 
securing the best shoots in the positions they are 
required to occupy, and to shorten back or remove 
altogether any other shoots which may not be re- 
quired at all. Within July, however, all these strong- 
growing Roses should be examined, and every year 
some of the shoots which have flowered be entirely 
removed and the best of the strong young growths 
encouraged to take their place, cutting out altogether 
those not needed. The object of thinning out the 
shoots that have flowered, and tying or laying in the 
strong young shoots of the current year, is to enable 
the latter to make better growth, and by exposure 
to light and air to become ripened before the winter 
sets in. 

Austrian Briers. — Beyond removing the dead, in- 


jured, and worn-out shoots, the Austrian Briers should 
not be touched at all with the knife. 

Scotch Briers. — These require similar treatment to 
the Austrian Briers. 

Hybrid Sweet -briers. — The Sweet-briers need no 
spring pruning at all ; but in July, after flowering, it 
will be well to cut out some of the older shoots where 
crowded, in order to give the younger ones a chance 
of making better growth. 

Pompon. — The free -flowering miniature Pompon 
Roses should have their shoots well thinned out, and 
those left shortened one-half their length. 

Rugosa or Japanese Roses. — This hardy section re- 
quires but little pruning. Some of the old and 
crowded shoots should be entirely removed, and 
the younger growths either tied in or moderately 

Banksia. — The pruning of this particular class of 
Rose differs somewhat from that of nearly all the 
climbers in that they require but little thinning. After 
flowering, the strong shoots of the present year's 
growth not required to furnish the plant should be 
removed, and the rest of them tied in and slightly 
shortened. Care should be taken not to cut away 
the twiggy growths, as the flowers are borne on these 

Gallica or French Roses. — Only the striped varieties 
in this class are now grown. They should be pruned 
in the same way as recommended for the Provence 

Single-flowered Roses. — As these belong to so many 


different sections, it is impossible to give the exact 
treatment all of them require. Those of vigorous 
growth should be pruned as advised for other Climb- 
ing and Pillar Roses, while the bush and dwarf 
varieties should be only thinned out, and the points 
of the remaining shoots removed. The few dwarf 
Hybrid Perpetuals bearing single flowers should, 
however, be rather severely pruned. 

Pegging down Roses. — When suitable varieties are 
selected, this way of growing Roses in beds has much 
to commend itself ; indeed, in no other way can such 
a number of blooms of the larger-flowered Roses like 
the Hybrid Perpetuals be obtained from the same 
number of plants. In the spring only a few of the 
longest and best shoots on each plant should be re- 
tained. After cutting off just the ends of these long 
shoots they should be carefully bent and pegged down 
to within a few inches of the soil. In the following 
spring the shoots that have flowered should be cut 
away, and the strong young growths pegged down 
in their place. 









There are several other ways of propagating Roses, 
but the one most frequently employed and the most 
satisfactory is by budding. 

Dwarf Stocks. — Many people imagine that all the 
dwarf or bush Roses they see in gardens are growing 
on their own roots, whereas in ninety-nine cases out 
of a hundred the roots of the plants are those of 
some Brier stock. The three stocks most in favour 
at the present time are the Brier-cutting, the seedling 
Brier, and the Manetti. 

The only difference between the Brier-cutting and 
seedling Brier is that the former is obtained by 
making cuttings of the ordinary hedgerow Brier, 
while the latter is the result of sowing the seed of 
that Brier. They are both excellent stocks, and there 
are scarcely any Roses which will not unite with 
and grow well on either of them. The roots of the 
Brier-cutting are thrown out more horizontally than 
those of the seedling Brier, and are therefore more 
accessible to light and air and to any liquid or other 
surface nourishment that may be given them. On 
the other hand the downward tendency of the nume- 
rous roots of the seedling Brier enables the Roses 
budded on it to withstand drought better, and it is 


if anything the more permanent stock of the two. 
The Manetti stock answers well in some parts of the 
country, such as the northern districts of England, 
and on certain soils, but cannot be so generally 
recommended as the other two stocks that have been 
mentioned. In most cases the roots of the Manetti, 
which is a foreign Brier, gradually decay, and the 
Rose budded on it, after a time, either dies outright 
or is kept alive by the roots thrown out round the 
collar of the plant by the Rose itself. It has another 
great defect in that the foliage of the Manetti is not 
easily distinguishable from that of many cultivated 
Roses, so that the suckers from this stock often pass 
unnoticed. Indeed one seldom goes into any ordinary 
garden without meeting with these suckers. In many 
cases the Rose has entirely disappeared, and the shoots 
of the stock alone remain. 

It is not necessary to explain the method of raising 
any of these dwarf stocks, as all three can be obtained 
early in the autumn at a cheap rate from any Rose 
nurseryman. As soon as they arrive they should be 
planted one foot apart and three feet between the 
rows. For the convenience of budding they should 
be planted only about four inches deep and after- 
wards earthed up like potatoes as far as the main 
stem extends. 

Standard Stocks. — The only stock used for standards, 
half-standards, and dwarf standards is the hedgerow 
Brier. These may be purchased during November 
from a nursery, or any local labourer used to such 
work will obtain as many as required from the wild 


Briers in the district. These stocks should be trimmed 
of any side shoots, cut to the length wanted, and 
planted two feet apart and four feet between the 
rows. The root should be cut away to within, say, 
two inches of the stem and not be left like a hockey- 
stick. The best stocks are those of the second year's 

Budding Standard Stocks. — Budding is one of those 
things which cannot readily be learnt from printed 
instructions, but which any proficient in the art will be 
able to teach the beginner in a few lessons, and which 
a little practice afterwards will soon render quite easy 
to him. A few hints may, however, be useful when 
the mechanical process has been mastered. For in- 
stance, in budding standard stocks a single rather long 
slit is preferable to the somewhat shorter T-shaped one 
usually employed, as the transverse cut weakens the 
shoot of the Brier and often causes it to snap off in 
high winds where it has been made. It is also a 
good plan to give the roots of the stocks a good 
drenching with water before they are budded, as 
it will cause the bark to come away from the wood 
more readily than it otherwise would have done. 
Budding can be done at any time during the summer ; 
the early part of July is usually the best period of 
the year to begin, as the majority of the shoots are 
then in that half-ripened condition which is so desir- 
able — that is to say, neither too sappy nor on the other 
hand too old and dry. The shoots of the Rose from 
which the buds are taken should be in the same 
half-ripened condition, and the buds themselves only 


moderately plump and consequently quite dormant. 
If the bark does not come away readily from any 
shoot when the handle of the budding knife is 
inserted, it is useless to try and bud on it. When 
the prickles on either the shoot of the Brier to be 
budded or on the shoot of the Rose from which 
the bud is to be taken come off easily and there are 
at the same time fresh green leaves at the end of 
that shoot, it is certain to be in the best condition 
possible for budding. The Hybrid Perpetuals and 
Hybrid Teas will be found easier to bud than the 
Teas. The buds should be tied in moderately firmly 
but not too tightly. In a fortnight's time they may 
be tied afresh, this time more loosely. After budding, 
none of the budded shoots of the Brier should be 
touched with the knife until November, when the 
longest and most vigorous may be shortened about 
one-third of their length. 

Budding Dwarf Stocks. — The stocks should be kept 
well earthed up until budding time, when the sur- 
rounding soil should be removed with a small hand 
fork from a few of the Briers as they are wanted. 
The main stem should then be cleaned with a rag 
and the slit made in it for the insertion of the bud. 
The T-shaped slit, previously objected to in the case 
of standard stocks, may here be made, and a single 
bud (or if preferred two buds close together) be 
inserted in it. The buds should be inserted quite 
low down in the stem near the roots and not in 
the upper part of it. The instructions given when 
treating of budding standard stocks as regards 



watering, the time of year, the selecting of the buds, 
and also as to tying and retying them after insertion, 
apply equally to those dwarf stocks. 

Raising Rose Plants from Cuttings. — Now that excel- 
lent Rose plants can be obtained ready made, as it 
were, from the nurseries at such reasonable prices, it 
seems hardly worth while trying to raise them from 
cuttings, besides which, budding is a much more 
certain and quicker method of increasing a stock of 
Roses. To ensure the greatest measure of success 
the following directions may be followed with confi- 
dence, as they are the outcome of the experience of 
one of the most skilful raisers of own-root Roses that 
we have ever had. A cucumber or other cold frame 
should be placed on hard ground and filled with a 
mixture of loam, sand and leaf-mould in nearly equal 
proportions to the depth of six inches. This compost 
should be made very firm and afterwards well watered. 
In a few days it will be ready to receive the cuttings. 
The best time to commence operations is towards the 
end of September. The cuttings should be taken 
from shoots which have borne the first crop of Roses 
of the year, as they will then be in the half-ripened 
condition required. They should not be cut from 
the plant but stripped off with a slight heel. The 
cuttings should be about four inches in length and 
thus prepared. All the leaves should be cut off 
except the two lower leaflets of the two upper leaves. 
They must be dibbled in and made very firm at the 
base or they will not strike. The cuttings should 
be inserted six inches apart and three inches deep, 


leaving the remaining inch with its leaflets to peep 
out above the compost. After the cuttings have 
been planted they should for a time be kept close, 
admitting a little air to prevent the leaflets damping 
off. In severe weather the frame must be covered 
with sufficient matting or other material to keep out 
frost, or the cuttings will be lifted by its action on 
the compost and so prevented from rooting. Early 
in May in the following year they should be taken up 
with a ball and potted, kept close for a time in a 
frame, and then gradually exposed to the air and 
sunshine. In August they will be ready to plant 
out. The Roses which best answer to this treatment 
are the stronger growing varieties, for the moderate 
growers, if they succeed at all, take a long time before 
they make good plants. 

Rose cuttings may be struck in the open ground 
under a north wall or other shady spot, planting them 
in sandy soil as above advised ; but owing to the 
disturbing influence of frost and other causes the 
percentage of successes will not be nearly so great 
as when they are afforded the protection of frames. 

Grafting. — This method of propagation is scarcely 
ever employed by amateurs, and it is therefore un- 
necessary to describe it here. It is used by nursery- 
men, principally for raising pot Roses and as a rapid 
way of increasing the stock of any new or rare 



There is scarcely any other plant which is attacked 
by so many or such persistent enemies as the Rose. 
Strange to say, writers on Rose culture, in enumerating 
these, invariably omit to mention the most potent 
enemy of all, and that is, adverse weather. It is not 
only that these adverse weather conditions often 
inflict more serious and lasting injuries than all the 
other enemies of the Rose put together, but they are 
also indirectly responsible for the worst attacks from 
insect and other pests. Taking all classes of Roses 
together, there is perhaps no climate in the world so 
favourable to their perfect development as that of the 
British Isles, and, provided seasonable weather could 
always be depended upon, these islands would be a 
perfect paradise for the rosarian. Unfortunately this 
is far from being the case, as more or less unseason- 
able weather must be regarded in this country as the 
rule rather than the exception, and consequently he 
is kept in a continual state of anxiety as to what un- 
favourable climatic changes his favourites may next 
be called upon to encounter. No doubt one reason 
for these anxieties is due to the fact that most of our 
cultivated Roses are only half-hardy plants, and 

113 H 


therefore peculiarly susceptible to all kinds of un- 
favourable weather influences. 

Frosts. — These may be divided into two classes — 
the winter frosts and the spring frosts. Against the 
former the protection provided cannot well be too 
complete, whereas very moderate means will mostly 
be sufficient to ward off injuries from spring frosts ; 
and yet against the ill effects of these spring frosts 
there is practically no remedy, unless it be syringeing 
or spraying the frosted foliage with water very early 
in the morning in order to thaw it before sunrise. 
For at that season it is not so much the damage done 
by the frost itself that has to be guarded against as the 
sudden thawing of the frozen leaves by the sun shining 
on them. Of course the reason why spring frosts are 
so difficult to deal with as compared with winter frosts 
is that in the one case the plants are clothed with 
delicate young foliage, whereas in the winter it is only 
necessary to protect the lower portion of the leafless 

Early in December all the dwarf or bush Roses, 
whether Hybrid Perpetuals, Hybrid Teas, Teas or 
Noisettes, &c., should have the surrounding soil in 
the beds drawn over the centre or crown of the 
plants to the height of several inches. In other 
words, they should be earthed up like potatoes. 
This earthing up is generally confined to the Teas, 
but no amateur will regret having given his other 
dwarf Roses this extra attention should the winter 
prove unusually severe, for there are comparatively 
few varieties which will be found at pruning time 



after such a winter with perfectly sound wood even 
within a few inches of the surface of the beds. 

Standard Roses are less easily protected. Bracken, 
cut in September before it has become brittle, should 
be secured to the heads ; or a more effectual pro- 
tection may be afforded the standard Teas by first 
drawing the shoots of the plant together and then 
lightly thatching the head with straw or bracken 
fastened above it to a firm stake, with one or more 
ties lower down, as may be necessary to prevent the 
straw or bracken from being blown aside in high 
winds. Tender wall Roses, such as Marechal Niel, 
are best protected by fastening over them some fine 
cotton netting, or by placing bracken, small sprigs 
of fir, or other light evergreens, among the branches. 

Drought. — In dry weather it will be well to give all 
the plants a good watering (at least half a gallon to 
each Rose) once a week, either with clear water or 
weak liquid manure. On the following day the beds 
should be hoed to keep a loose surface, which will 
be of the greatest help in preventing the soil beneath 
from becoming quickly dry again. Another plan is 
to give each plant a thorough watering with clear 
water and then to cover over the surface of the beds 
with a mulching or covering of half-decayed manure. 
The objection to a mulching, which should never 
be applied before June, is that many consider it un- 
sightly, and the birds are sure to scratch among it 
and so scatter the manure over the grass or other 
paths between the beds. 

Insect Pests. — Against the foregoing and other ad- 


verse weather influences the Rose grower is to a great 
extent powerless, whereas insect pests, if attacked 
with promptness and perseverance, can, as a rule, 
be readily subdued. The great thing is to watch for 
their appearance and at once proceed to destroy the 
first comers, and when this is done to continue to 
harass the enemy until the attack has entirely ceased. 
It is, as a rule, only when any insect pest has been 
allowed to obtain a firm footing that there need be 
any difficulty in getting rid of it. Good culture is a 
great help, as well-nourished and healthy plants do 
not suffer so much from insect and other attacks as 
those that are ill-fed and weakly. The only remedy 
against all the larger insects that attack the Rose, 
like caterpillars, grubs, beetles, sawflies, &c., is hand- 
picking ; whereas the smaller ones, like greenfly, 
thrips, red spider, &c., may be best kept in check 
by syringeing. Where Roses are largely grown, a 
knapsack spraying-pump will be found very useful in 
distributing and spraying insecticides and fungicides. 

Grubs and Caterpillars. — The Rose maggot and seve- 
ral other equally destructive leaf -rolling grubs and 
caterpillars are generally the first pests to attack the 
Rose in the spring. They will be found curled up 
in the young foliage, and must be sought for every 
few days and crushed between the thumb and finger, 
or much damage will be done. This is not a plea- 
sant occupation, but unfortunately there is no other 
remedy except it be to pinch off the affected leaves 
and afterwards burn them or throw them into a 
strong solution of salt and water. 


The next enemy to appear will be the frog-hopper 
or cuckoo - spit, a little pale green or pale yellow 
frog -like insect which will be found hidden in the 
centre of a small patch of froth deposited either in 
the axils of the leaves or on the leaves themselves. 
This, again, must be hunted out and destroyed by 
means of the thumb and finger, or removed with a 
small brush and deposited in the salt and water 
solution before mentioned. 

The Boring Grub. — Holes will be often noticed in 
the tops of the stems of standard Roses ; these are 
made by this pith - boring grub. As a preventive 
the ends of standard Roses should be painted with 
" knotting " at planting time, and the same pre- 
caution should be adopted with the standard stocks. 
If the holes have been already made, a piece of 
copper wire thrust sharply down them will destroy 
the grubs ; a little putty is used to close the holes 
afterwards. The same grubs also occasionally pierce 
the shoots of Roses, and seem especially fond of 
those made by standard Brier stocks. In this case, 
as soon as observed, the hollow ends of the shoots 
should be squeezed until firm wood is met with, and 
then cut off. In this way the boring grub will be 
crushed and the affected part of the shoot removed. 

The Rose Aphis or Greenfly. — In some seasons these 
tiny creatures are very numerous and troublesome, 
and if not frequently destroyed increase very rapidly. 
Most exhibitors keep greenfly under entirely by the 
skilful use of the thumb and finger. This only 
shows how easily such pests may be kept in check, 


if attacked directly they make their appearance and 
never afterwards allowed to congregate in any great 
numbers. Occasional sharp s5Tingeing with a garden- 
engine with clean water will be found in most cases 
sufi&cient. Should this, however, prove ineffectual, 
the following well-known remedy may be used in- 
stead. Take two ounces of quassia chips and boil 
them in a gallon of water, adding a tablespoonful 
of soft soap before the mixture becomes cold. Or 
one of the man}^ insecticides in the market may be 
tried, keeping strictly to the directions supplied with 
the bottle. 

Thrips. — These tiny creatures often injure Rose 
blooms in hot and dry weather, especially those of 
the Teas, by giving the petals a brown and bruised 
appearance. Spraying or syringeing with clean water 
is the best remedy to employ, even at the risk of 
spoiling some of the existing blooms. 

Red Spider. — This is another dry-weather enemy, 
and so small as not to be detected with the unaided 
eye. It generally attacks the lower sides of the leaves, 
and if not kept in check causes them to fall from the 
plant prematurely. The same remedy as for thrips is 
advisable. Crimson Rambler, when grown in hot or 
confined positions, is rather subject to this pest. In 
dealing with large plants like this, it will be found a 
good plan to use a small watering-pot with a fine rose, 
and each evening in dry weather to wet both sides of 
the leaves by swinging it sharply up and down and 
across the climber. 

Fungoid pests — Mildew. — Of all the insect and fungoid 


enemies of the Rose this is, as a rule, the most trouble- 
some to deal with. It appears as a white mould on 
the foliage, and if not promptly dealt with will quickly 
spread from one plant to another over the whole col- 
lection. It occurs at all seasons, but principally in 
autumn, when, if not checked, it will prevent the 
plants from flowering as freely as they otherwise 
would. Flowers of sulphur is a sure preventive, but 
each attack must be dealt with on its first appearance, 
and the application repeated until a cure is effected. A 
very simple way of applying the sulphur is by shaking 
it lightly over the affected plants by means of a fine 
muslin bag the first calm evening after the mildew is 
detected. Although only the upper surface of the 
leaves are dusted over it will be found in practice 
that the action of the sun will vaporise the sulphur 
and cause the surrounding atmosphere to be impreg- 
nated with it. Syringeing or spraying with the follow- 
ing liquid will also prove effectual, more especially 
if the under side of the leaves can be wetted with it. 
To make this mixture half an ounce of potassium 
sulphide should be dissolved in a gallon of hot water, 
which should be well stirred as the sulphide of potas- 
sium dissolves ; when cold the liquid will be ready 
for use. Warm days followed by cold nights are 
the most frequent causes of this pest, also a close, 
muggy atmosphere. 

Red Rust or Orange Fungus. — This is much more 
variable than mildew, and in many gardens is seldom 
if ever seen, while in others, particularly those on 
hot and dry soils, it is frequently very destructive to 


the foliage in the autumn. On its first appearance a 
few sulphur-coloured spots will be noticed either on 
the leaves or shoots. In the next stage it increases 
and becomes a bright orange, ultimately turning black. 
There is no practical remedy for this fungus, as unlike 
mildew it vegetates inside instead of on the surface of 
the foliage. 




It is often said by those who are beginning Rose 
culture that they have no idea of ever exhibiting their 
flowers, but that they simply intend to grow Roses for 
their own pleasure and for the decoration of their 
garden. However, after a few years, if their enthu- 
siasm has not by that time altogether evaporated, 
the care and attention they have given their plants 
has led to such excellent results that they are often 
tempted to enter the lists, in order to test their skill 
against that of other competitors. The great charm 
that the Rose possesses over most other flowers for 
exhibition purposes is that it is a true amateur's flower 
— a flower that any amateur with moderate leisure 
can cultivate entirely with his own hands ; or if the 
collection be too large to allow of this being done, he 
can undertake the lighter and more important parts of 
the work himself and leave the digging, manuring 
and watering to be carried out by the gardener under 
his own special supervision. 

The directions that have previously been given as to 
planting, pruning, &c., apply, for the most part, to 
exhibitors and non-exhibitors alike. The principal 
difference consists in the more constant care and 
attention that the exhibitor is obliged to give his 


plants in order to keep himself in line with other 
competitors. It may be well, however, to draw atten- 
tion to those details of culture which require special 
care on the part of the exhibitor. 

In order to obtain exceptionally fine blooms his 
collection must be kept clean and well nourished, and 
at the same time the strength of each plant must be 
directed into certain restricted channels ; in other 
words, the object should be to have strong and 
healthy plants, bearing only a limited number of 

Planting. — The Roses may be grown in separate 
parallel beds five feet wide, containing three rows of 
plants, with grass paths between the beds. More 
frequently, however, a piece of ground, either in part of 
the garden itself or in an adjoining field, is dug up 
and prepared to receive the whole collection. In the 
latter case the Roses should be arranged in double 
lines ; that is to say, between each second row of plants 
a space three feet wide should be left to enable the 
cultivator to attend readily to the wants of the Roses 
on each side of this space or pathway. The plants in 
the rows should be two feet apart, and the same 
distance should separate the rows. By this arrange- 
ment much time is saved, a matter of great import- 
ance, considering that each plant will require to be 
visited if not every day at all events every other day 
during the growing and exhibiting seasons. It is a 
mistake to grow a larger number of plants than can 
receive this amount of individual attention. 

Pruning. — The best month in which to prune the 







Hybrid Perpetuals and Hybrid Teas is March. It 
will be well to commence operations early in that 
month, and to continue the work at intervals during 
the course of it. When thinning out the shoots of the 
Hybrid Perpetuals, from three to six shoots, accord- 
ing to the strength of the individual plant, should be 
allowed to remain. By the best shoots is meant those 
which are the strongest and at the same time well 
ripened ; gross, sappy shoots are of little service. 
When pruned the shoots should be left from three 
to six inches in length, according to the vigour of the 
variety — the stronger growers being the least severely 

The Hybrid Teas will also require close pruning as 
a rule, but the shoots of the strong-growing varieties 
should be left longer than is recommended for the 
Hybrid Perpetuals. 

The pruning of the Teas must be deferred until 
April, when, after thinning out the weak, sappy and 
dead shoots, those that remain should be cut back half 
their length. Of course, should the previous winter 
have been unusually severe there will be little choice 
in the matter, for in that case, after removing the 
dead wood, the shoots which remain will have to be 
cut back until sound wood is met with, even should 
this be beneath the level of the soil. 

Insects and other Pests. — These must be diligently 
sought for and prompt measures taken to destroy 
them and thus prevent them from spreading. For 
this purpose a daily inspection of the plants during the 
growing season will be necessary. It cannot be too 


often repeated that most of these pests can with com- 
parative ease be kept in check if dealt with directly 
they make their appearance, but when once they have 
become established, the difficulties of the cultivator 
are increased tenfold. 

Thinning out the Young Shoots. — As the object of 
the exhibitor is to allow each plant only a limited 
number of shoots and to confine the flow of sap to 
these particular growths, it will be necessary soon 
after the young shoots appear to remove nearly all the 
other growths until the first crop of flowers has been 
produced. It is not advisable to begin this thinning- 
out process too early, as, in the case of harm from 
spring frosts, some of the later-made shoots may be 
required to take the place of some of those originally 
designed for the production of the exhibition blooms ; 
besides which, it is only when the young shoots are 
moderately advanced that it will be possible to judge 
which of them it will be advisable to retain or to remove. 
According to the strength of the plant, from three to 
six flowering shoots should ultimately be left on each. 
This art of thinning out is an important one and can 
only be mastered after some little experience. As a 
rule the growths that are likely to bear the best 
flowers are the strong ones which come from the top 
bud of the shoots that have been pruned. Some of 
the moderately strong shoots which spring from the 
base of the plant may also be retained, but not so the 
extra strong sucker-like growths. These should be cut 
down to within six inches of the ground, for not only 
will they monopolise an undue proportion of the 



vigour of the plant, but the blooms they produce will 
be found as a rule to be coarse and unfit for exhibi- 
tion. This process of thinning should be continued 
until the buds on the selected shoots are showing 

Manuring. — As Roses are gross feeders, it will be 
necessary to keep the plants well nourished by the 
threefold application of (i) farmyard or other animal 
manure, (2) artificial manure, and (3) liquid manure. 

(i) In the autumn a good dressing of half -rotten 
manure — farmyard for preference — should be lightly 
dug into the beds between the plants, taking care to 
disturb the roots as little as possible. 

(2) In March, and again in May, either Clay's 
fertilizer, or other artificial Rose manure, should be 
dusted around each plant, and afterwards mixed 
with the surface soil by means of a hand-fork. A 
small handful of either of these manures will be a 
sufficient application for each Rose. 

(3) As soon as the flower - buds are formed the 
plants should be watered once a w'eek with liquid 
manure. The first watering, especially if the soil 
be at all dry at the time, should be very weak. The 
strength of the liquid after this may be increased, 
but at no time should the colour be deeper than 
that of pale ale. An excellent liquid manure may 
be made by mixing in a tubful of water some fresh 
cow manure, soot, and guano, in the following pro- 
portions : three parts cow manure, one part soot, 
and one part guano. After these ingredients have 
been thoroughly mixed with the water, the concen- 


trated liquid thus obtained should be freely diluted 
with clear water before being used. The day after 
each watering the surface soil should be hoed or 
lightly forked over to keep it open and accessible to 
light and air. It is often thought by non-exhibitors 
that the fine blooms they see at the Rose shows are 
almost entirely the result of heavy manuring. This 
is a great mistake, for the size and quality of the 
flowers depends much more on the free use of the 
hoe and the unremitting attention that exhibitors 
bestow on their plants than on the amount of 
nourishment they may have received in the way of 

Mulching. — On hot, dry, shallow soils, it will be 
necessary to cover the ground on which the Roses 
are growing with a layer of half-decayed manure in 
order to keep it moister and less liable to changes 
of temperature than it would otherwise be. This 
mulching should, however, not be put on earlier 
than the beginning of June. Mulching should be 
dispensed with wherever it is not absolutely needed, 
as a frequent loosening of the surface soil is no 
doubt preferable to any such covering. 

Disbudding. — At the end of each shoot that has 
been left on the plants after they have been thinned 
will ultimately appear, as a rule, three flower-buds. 
Of these only the centre one should be allowed to 
remain, the two others being removed as soon as 
this can conveniently be done. Some use a pointed 
quill for this purpose, but with a little practice these 
small buds can be easily taken off with the fingers. 



Shading. — The blooms of some varieties, and more 
particularly the crimson Hybrid Perpetuals, are very 
liable to become burnt if exposed to the direct rays 
of the sun in hot weather. It will therefore be neces- 
sary to afford them some protection. There are many 
kinds of shades used for this purpose, but the simplest 
and most efficient are those made of calico stretched 
tightly over a conical frame made of stout zinc wire, 
as they are cool, well-ventilated, and sufficiently water- 
proof, and yet do not seriously obstruct the light. 
These shades should be 12 inches across in the widest 
part, and 9 inches high. The zinc socket attached 
to the frame must be made to slide up and down a 
square wooden rod in which holes have been pierced 
at intervals, so that by means of a metal pin the 
shade can be adjusted to any height required. These 
zinc frames can be made by any blacksmith, or a 
smaller shade of the same kind can be obtained ready 
made of Mr. J. Pinches, of Crown Street, Camber- 
well. It is advisable to have a good supply of 
these shades, as they not only shield choice blooms 
from the sun, but are still more useful in protecting 
them from rain and heavy dews. 

Rose Boxes. — These are usually made of half-inch 
deal, and are painted throughout dark green. The 
following are the regulation sizes: viz., for twenty- 
four blooms, 3 feet 6 inches long ; for eighteen 
blooms, 2 feet 9 inches long ; for twelve blooms, 
2 feet long ; for nine blooms, i foot 6 inches long ; 
and for six blooms, i foot long. For eight trebles 
(three blooms arranged in the box triangularly), 3 feet 


6 inches long ; for six trebles, 2 feet 9 inches long ; 
and for four trebles, 2 feet long. All the boxes must 
be 4 inches high in front and 18 inches wide. These 
are all outside measurements. Inside each box there 
should be a tray pierced with holes to receive the 
tubes in which the blooms are exhibited. 

Exhibition Tubes. — The best form of exhibition 
tube is that known as Foster's Tube, as the bloom 
can be placed by means of the wires supplied with 
the tubes at any required height without raising the 
tube itself, and there is a holder in front for the 
reception of the card on which the name of the Rose 
is printed or written. These tubes can be obtained 
of Mr. H. Foster, Ashford, Kent. 

Cutting the Blooms. — If the show be a local one 
and easy of access it will be well to cut the most 
forward blooms on the evening of the day previous 
to the exhibition, and those less advanced and likely 
to improve on the plants during the night, early on 
the following morning. But if the show be at a 
distance it will be advisable to cut the blooms early 
in the evening, as it is found that if cut when they 
are going to sleep, as it were, in the evening, they 
develop less rapidly on the journey to the show, and 
consequently travel better than those cut in the 
morning when they are growing rapidly. It is no 
use cutting any blooms which are fully expanded, 
except in rare cases, as they will be too far advanced 
for exhibition by the time they reach the show. The 
choicest half-developed blooms should be selected ; 
that is to say, those which are large for the variety, 

MRS. PAUL {BourbJii). PINK. 


AND ROSE TO CENTRE; 4 inches. 



and at the same time regular in shape and of good 
colour. The boxes should in the first instance be 
placed in a cool shed, the tubes filled with water, and 
the surface of the box covered with the freshest and 
greenest moss obtainable. It is not a good plan to 
set up Roses in a shady place in the open air. This 
being done, the selected blooms, as they are cut, should 
be placed in the tubes and labelled. The blooms must 
be cut with stems sufficiently long to allow of their 
ends reaching the water when raised to the required 
height at the exhibition. A little experience will show 
in what stage of development the different varieties, 
according to their respective staying power, require to 
be cut. The best blooms should next be chosen, and 
after having been wired, should be placed in the box 
intended for exhibition and labelled. Blank labels of 
a suitable size can be obtained of Messrs. Blake and 
Mackenzie, School Lane, Liverpool, or they can be 
had from the same firm with the names of the Roses 
already printed on them. In order to keep the flowers 
from unduly expanding on their way to the show, 
each bloom should be tied round with double Berlin 
wool. In doing this the outer row of petals should 
be left free. The best form of tie, as it will not slip 
and yet can be readily removed, is made by taking 
one end of a piece of wool about a foot long and 
twisting it twice round the other end. The loop thus 
formed is placed over the middle of the bloom and 
inside the outer or guard petals, and then drawn by 
the two ends of the tie close round the flower, so as 
to clasp it firmly and yet not too tightly. Before 



being left for the night the hd should be put on the 
box, and the end of a small flower-pot be inserted in 
the centre of the lid to keep it a few inches open in 
the front so as to allow of a free access of air to the 
blooms. For every bloom intended to be staged there 
should be taken to the show, in a separate box, at least 
one extra bloom (not necessarily of the same variety), 
and all these spare blooms should, as a rule, be younger 
than those in the box designed for the exhibition. It 
will not be necessary to wire or label these extra 
blooms, but it will be well to place between the inner 
petals of each of them a tiny slip of writing paper with 
the name of the variety upon it, so that there may be 
no doubt of its identity when selected to take the place 
of another bloom at the show.- The centres of all 
but the youngest blooms should also be tied. When 
travelling to the exhibition care must be taken that the 
Rose boxes are at all times kept level, and for this 
purpose it will be necessary to personally superintend 
the placing of the boxes in the vans of the trains, 
and their removal therefrom, and in the same way 
to see they are properly treated when travelling by 
cab or other conveyance. 

At the Exhibition. — It is always well to reach the 
show early, so that plenty of time may be available 
for setting up the Roses. The boxes intended for 
exhibition should at once be taken to the places where 
they are to be staged. In that way their position is 
secured, and they should not require to be moved 
after the blooms are once arranged, although this has 
unfortunately occasionally to be done if the exhibition 







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be in any way crowded. After the lid of the first box 
to be arranged has been removed, and the box tilted 
up at the back by means of two small flower-pots, 
the flowers should in the first instance be untied, and 
any which are overblown or otherwise unsuitable be 
taken out of the box and replaced by fresher specimens 
from the box containing the spare blooms. The 
largest flowers should be placed in the back row and 
the smallest in front. As far as practicable the dark 
and light coloured Roses should be set up alternately 
so that they may be distributed equally over the box, 
inserting any yellow flowers there may be towards the 
centre of the arrangement. It is a good plan to place 
the two choicest blooms in each row at the ends. 

The Roses having been thus arranged as regards 
colour, the individual flowers should be set up to the 
required height. Those in the back row should be 
the highest, those in the front the lowest, and those in 
the middle row at an intermediate height, but in each 
row all the blooms should be at the same level. Before 
finally setting up each bloom it will be necessary to 
see that it is in exhibition form ; that is to say, in every 
case any discoloured or ragged petals should be re- 
moved, and the outer row of petals firmly but very 
gradually pressed back at the base into a nearly hori- 
zontal position with the help of a large camel's-hair 
brush. In addition to this the younger blooms may 
require to have another row or more of petals treated 
in the same way to help the flower to open ; a sharp 
puff given with the mouth to the inner petals will also 
often prove of material assistance in effecting this. 


Should any bloom threaten to become too much 
developed before the judges come round, it will be 
well to tie up the centre petals again. The flowers 
having been thus carefully arranged, the lid should 
be replaced on the box and nearly, but not quite, 
closed. As soon as the order is given for the box lids 
to be removed, the lids should be taken off, the few 
remaining ties removed from the blooms on which 
they have been replaced, and any final touches to the 
arrangement given that may be necessary. 

Exhibitijig Garden or Decorative Roses — Culture and 
Pruning. — These so-called "garden" Roses belong 
to such different sections that it is impossible to 
lay down any special rules as to culture. In all 
cases, however, the object aimed at should be the same, 
namely, to obtain strong-growing plants of all the 
varieties cultivated, to thin out the shoots sparingly, 
and to prune back lightly those that remain. The 
climbing varieties should be treated as recommended in 
the chapter on pruning (p. 104), those of less vigorous 
growth should be cultivated as free-flowering bushes, 
while in the case of dwarf-growing Teas and Pompons 
the same bushy habit should as far as possible be en- 

Cutting the Flowers. — As the cutting and arranging 
of " garden " Roses takes considerably longer than 
does that of the exhibition varieties, it is advisable 
to commence operations earlier in the afternoon pre- 
ceding the show day. In selecting the sprays those 
on which the most forward flowers are only half 
open should be chosen, and the remainder should 




have either well-developed buds or buds just showing 
colour. Having gathered sufficient shoots of any 
one sort to make an exhibition bunch, those selected 
should be wired and placed deeply in a bowl, or other 
vessel holding plenty of water, before proceeding to 
cut the remaining bunches. When all are gathered, 
the sprays should be arranged in bunches and their 
stems tied together with raffia ready for exhibition on 
the morrow. Some taste and care are necessary in 
arranging these bunches so that the flowers are dis- 
played to the best advantage. After this has been 
done they will require to be again placed in water 
and removed to a dry cellar or other cool place for 
the night. On the following morning these bunches 
must be taken from the receptacles in which they 
were placed and carefully laid on soft paper in the 
bottom of a Rose-box from which the tray has been 
removed, or, better still, in a lady's cardboard dress- 
box. On arriving at the exhibition the bunches 
should at once be placed in water in the vases in 
which they are to be exhibited. The same principle 
should be followed as when setting up exhibition 
Roses ; that is to say, the largest bunches should be 
placed at the back, the smallest in the front, and the 
light and dark varieties arranged as far as possible 
alternately, using larger and higher vases for the 
bunches in the back row than for those in the front. 
Bunches of garden Roses should not be crowded, or 
the foliage and habit will not be properly shown. 



To the true lover of the Rose it is a great deprivation 
to have Roses in flower during less than half the year, 
which must be the case if they be only cultivated in 
the open ground. It is, however, possible to have 
Roses in bloom all the year round if they be grown 
under glass as well as in the garden, although the 
supply of blooms may be scanty during the most 
gloomy part of the winter. For it is the paucity of 
sunshine and its feeble character which render the 
growth of the Queen of Flowers under glass in this 
country so much less satisfactory at that season than 
in America and other lands where the winter sunshine 
is stronger and more frequent. To dwellers in the 
neighbourhood of large towns where Roses cannot be 
successfully cultivated in the open ground, a Rose 
house is a great boon, as the plants can there be 
grown in the soil best suited to their requirements, 
and the foliage kept clean by frequent syringeing. 
As roses delight in a free, cool and rather humid at- 
mosphere and in an unrestricted root-run, they do not 
naturally adapt themselves to ordinary greenhouse 
culture. If, however, their requirements be under- 
stood and complied with as well as the altered cir- 
cumstances under which they are grown will admit, 




the cultivation of Roses under glass will not present 
any difficulties worth mentioning, notwithstanding 
the fact that the plants will be called upon to flower 
at a time of year when out-of-doors they would be 
taking their annual period of rest. There are two 
ways of growing Roses under glass, each of which 
has its own distinct advantage : (i) they can be 
cultivated in pots, or (2) planted out in specially pre- 
pared borders. 

Roses in Pots. — This is the simplest plan, and the 
one most frequently adopted, as any light heated 
greenhouse will answer the purpose. On the other 
hand, unless certain plants be specially prepared 
beforehand for late autumn and early winter flower- 
ing, others for forcing in heat so as to bloom in the 
dead of winter, and the remainder to flower from 
March onwards, the period of blooming is restricted 
to about a month or six weeks in the spring. The 
usual custom is for young plants to be purchased in 
pots from the Rose nurseries in September ready 
prepared. The plants when received should be 
placed under a north wall, and allowed to remain 
there until they are taken into the greenhouse early 
in December, so as to keep the leaf-buds in a 
dormant state. Should severe weather set in before 
this, some protection from frost must be afforded 
them at night. When housed, ample ventilation 
should be given, and but little fire heat, or the leaf- 
buds will begin to push before the plants are pruned 
at the beginning of January. The pruning of these 


young plants will be very simple, as the object should 
mainly be to secure well-developed and strong shoots 
for another season, rather than to obtain as many 
flowers as possible the first year. Therefore the 
weak shoots should be cut clean out, and the re- 
mainder shortened back to within two or three eyes. 
Cool treatment should still be adopted until the young 
shoots appear, when the heat may be slightly in- 
creased, for it should always be borne in mind that 
the more gradual the progress the plants make, the 
better will be the ultimate results. For this a steady 
but moderate warmth should, as far as practicable, be 
always maintained. Great care must be given to 
the admission of air, so that the atmosphere in the 
house may be buoyant and yet without cold draughts. 
For instance, in ordinary weather the top ventilators 
should be slightly opened on the side of the house 
opposite to that from which the wind may at the time 
be blowing. In very cold or rough weather the ven- 
tilators must either be kept closed altogether, or a 
little air be cautiously admitted in the middle of the 
day for an hour or so, as circumstances may direct. 
Another very important point is watering. In the 
early stages of growth the plants should be kept on 
rather the dry side, but as the foliage develops the 
supply of water should be gradually increased. When 
the flower-buds appear, weak liquid manure may be 
given at every alternate watering. 

Excellent liquid manures may be made by putting 
half a bushel of either fresh horse droppings or cow 
manure, or four pounds of soot, into a coarse bag, and 


suspending the bag in a tub containing twenty gallons 
of water. The Hquid animal manure may be used for 
a time, and then as a change the soot water substi- 
tuted. Much of the success of Rose growing under 
glass depends upon judicious watering — that is to say, 
on giving plenty of water whenever the plants really 
require it, and thus avoiding the objectionable practice 
of mere surface sprinkling at each time of watering, 
whatever the requirements of the individual plants at 
the time may be. Plenty of room should be allowed 
between the plants, so that light and air can reach all 
parts of them ; with the same object the best of the 
new growths when sufficiently long should be secured 
to light sticks placed near the edge of the pots. At 
the same time it will be necessary to remove altogether 
any of the new shoots which may not be required to 
furnish the plant. Four to six flowering shoots will 
be found as a rule sufficient for such young plants. 
At this stage about an inch of the surface soil in the 
pots should be removed, and a mixture of well- 
decayed manure and leaf-mould substituted. This 
surface dressing will tend to keep the roots cool and 
moist ; it should not, however, be thicker than the soil 
removed from the pots, or there will not be sufficient 
space left for watering. 

On every fine morning, from the time the Roses are 
pruned, the plants should be syringed until the new 
shoots are about an inch in length ; then stop 
syringeing and sprinkle the floor to keep the atmos- 
phere fairly moist. It may appear strange that in the 
dull months of the year this " damping down " should 


be necessary, when the outer atmosphere is mostly so 
humid, but few people are aware how dry the air in a 
greenhouse can become under such conditions, and 
more particularly when there is considerable difference 
between the inside and outside temperatures. When 
the plants are in bloom the house should be shaded 
during the sunniest part of the day, and air admitted 
to reduce the temperature inside the house. By this 
means the flowering period will be extended, and the 
individual flowers will be finer than would otherwise 
be the case. 

Insect and other Pests. — As with such pests in the 
open ground, so with those in the house, prompt 
measures are the only safeguard. The three great 
enemies of the Rose under glass are aphides or green- 
fly, red spider, and mildew. 

Aphides can be readily kept under by fumigation, 
which should be carried out the evening after the first 
greenfly is met with, and the dose repeated on the 
following night. A careful watch should be kept for 
the reappearance of this pest, and the same plan 
followed as before. If these directions be only faith- 
fully carried out, greenfly will give little trouble. 
Richards' X.L. All vaporizing Liquid, or other similar 
preparation of nicotine, used according to the instruc- 
tions supplied with it, will be found simple, cleanly, 
and effectual. 

Red Spider. — This usually appears in spring when 
the air in the house has been allowed to become too 
dry. In order to destroy this pest the under side of 
the foliage should be frequently syringed with clear 


water, and at the same time the plants should not be 
allowed to become dry at the roots. In addition to this 
the hot-water pipes should be smeared with sulphur 
made into a paste by the addition of a little milk. 

Mildew. — This is the most troublesome enemy of 
all to deal with in a Rose house if once allowed to 
establish itself, but if dealt with very promptly it can 
readily be kept in check. It most frequently arises 
from injudicious ventilation causing cold draughts 
of air to descend upon the tender foliage, for although 
Roses like a buoyant atmosphere they soon suffer 
if exposed to a cold current of air, and more parti- 
cularly if the house has previously been kept too hot 
or too close. The two great safeguards against mildew 
are judicious ventilation, and coating the water pipes 
with sulphur as recommended for red spider as soon 
as the plants come into leaf. This coating should 
be renewed about once a fortnight, for nothing will 
prevent the spores of mildew from finding congenial 
resting-places more effectually than the fumes of 
sulphur. However, notwithstanding all these pre- 
cautions, should the slightest trace of mildew be seen, 
the plants affected, as well as the plants near them, 
should be at once dusted over with flowers of sulphur. 

Rose Grubs. — In the early stages of growth these 
should be sought for and destroyed as soon as detected, 
hand picking being the only effectual remedy. But 
these pests will not be found nearly as numerous as 
in the case of Roses grown in the open air. 

The Suimner Treatment of Pot Plants. — When the 
plants have flowered more air should gradually be 


admitted and the temperature gradually lowered so 
as to prepare them for removal from the house. The 
middle of June is quite soon enough, as the plants 
should be encouraged to make new growth before being 
placed outside. An open spot, handy for watering, 
should be chosen for the summer quarters of these 
pot plants, and the pots plunged to their rim in ashes 
in order to keep the roots cool and to check evapora- 
tion. The endeavour at that season should be to 
obtain strong new growths which will become well 
ripened by the autumn. For this purpose the wants of 
the plants should receive frequent attention in the way 
of watering, the destruction of insect pests, and dusting 
with sulphur on the first appearance of mildew. All 
the flower-buds will also require to be removed as 
they appear. It is to the absence of reasonable care 
of pot Roses during the summer months that much of 
the want of success in growing them may often be 
traced. Occasional waterings with weak liquid manure 
will be found of much service. 

Repotting. — As soon as the plants have flowered, the 
roots and drainage should be examined. If any plant 
be found to require moving into a pot a size larger, 
this must be at once done, taking care to disturb 
the roots as little as possible, and to ram down the 
new soil firmly with a potting stick between the 
pot and the old soil. A suitable compost would 
be one composed of one half fibrous loam, one quarter 
old cow manure, and the remaining quarter leaf- 
mould, sand, and bone meal in equal quantities. 
Where it is found that the roots have not made 


sufficient growth to warrant the plants being repotted, 
they should be returned to the pots they previously 
occupied after the drainage has been seen to ; in that 
case some of the surface soil should be replaced 
by some of the above-mentioned compost. All the 
plants may then be well watered. Until the roots 
have found their way into the new soil and fresh 
growths have been made, the plants should remain 
in the greenhouse. 

In order to make these instructions as clear and 
simple as possible, they have been so far confined to 
the first year's treatment of young plants purchased 
in the autumn from the nurseries and grown to flower 
in the following April or May, because, for any one 
commencing Rose culture under glass, this plan is 
the easiest and the most satisfactory to follow. There 
are, however, two other methods which may be after- 
wards adopted with pot Roses. The plants can be 
raised from cuttings struck in the way recommended 
on p. Ill, or young plants may be potted up from 
the open ground, which is far preferable, particularly 
for H.P.'s and H.T.'s ; in the latter case the plants 
may either be taken up from the Rose garden, or 
maiden plants obtained from the Rose nurseries. 
But whichever plan be adopted, the earlier they can 
be potted in October, while most of the leaves are 
still on the plants, the better will be the result. 

Having selected a pot of a suitable size, and it 
should not be larger than will allow reasonable room 
for the roots, say, from eight to ten inches across, 
according to the vigour of the plant, all the stronger 


roots should be shortened, but on the other hand 
all the fibrous ones retained and without any cur- 
tailment. For compost it would be well to use that 
advised under the head of " Repotting " (p. 140). Do 
not plant too deeply, as the tendency of the new 
roots will be to strike downwards, and yet sufficient 
space must be allowed above for watering. Very firm 
potting is advisable ; in fact the soil cannot well be 
made too firm for Roses. When potted the plants 
should be well watered and then placed under a north 
wall. After this, until they are taken into the house 
in December, but little water will be needed. Early 
in January the plants should be pruned rather hard — 
that is to say, all the sappy, weak, and crowded shoots 
should be cut clean out, and the well-ripened ones 
that remain shortened back to two or three eyes. 
After this time the plants should be treated through- 
out the winter, spring, and summer in all respects 
as has been recommended for young plants purchased 
in pots from the nurseries (see pp. 135 to 138). The 
fire heat given should be very moderate^ as these 
Roses have been so recently potted, and therefore 
but a small proportion of their roots will be as yet 
in active growth. 

Whether the plants are purchased plants, raised 
from cuttings or potted up from the open ground, 
they must in the second and following years be 
submitted to the same routine of treatment as in 
the first year, except that the pruning should be 
less severe. A little experience with pot Roses will 
show that with their roots thus confined the annual 


growth made is very moderate indeed compared 
with that of the same varieties in the open ground. 
Consequently, if pruned as hard, most of the shoots 
made during the previous summer would be entirely 
removed ; whereas it is important that as many of 
these shoots as possible should be retained. After 
the dead wood and any weak or crowded growths 
in the centre of the plant have been cut clean out, 
the remaining shoots of the past season's growth 
should be pruned from one-third to one-half of 
their length, according to their strength, the stronger 
growths being left the longer of the two. The aim 
should be to obtain a well-balanced plant with a 
moderate number of good shoots as equally distri- 
buted round it as possible. In order to obtain this, 
it will be advisable after pruning to fasten a wire 
round the rim of the pot, and to tie out any shoots 
that may require it to the wire with raffia, taking 
care not to break any of them in so doing ; or 
light Hazel sticks may be inserted at intervals round 
the pots and the shoots secured to them. In the case 
of very vigorous growers, the leading shoots should 
be bent spirally round the ring of sticks. 

Forcing Roses. — If the plants be required to flower 
towards the end of the winter instead of in the 
spring more skill and care will be necessary, for 
Roses naturally object to much fire heat, and the 
lack of sunshine at that season is another drawback. 
For this purpose plants should be selected which 
have been grown as previously directed for at least 
one year under glass, with the pots well filled with 


roots ; or, if preferred, Roses specially prepared for 
forcing may be purchased. If any repotting be 
required, it should be done in May. After they 
have been placed in the house in November very 
little heat should be at first given, but it may be 
very gradually increased as the new growths appear. 
The ventilation should also be gradually lessened. 
As before recommended, the plants should be fre- 
quently syringed until the new growths are about an 
inch in length ; but after this the floor should, instead, 
be sprinkled freely with water on all but dull, damp 
days, or mildew may result. Indeed the great enemy 
to guard against is mildew, which is a certain sign 
of some defect in the treatment, either in watering, 
the admission of air, or the exposure of the plants 
to sudden changes of temperature. 

Roses in Beds. — This is really the most natural 
way of growing Roses under glass, and if the choice 
be restricted to the most free-flowering of the Teas 
and Hybrid Teas, they may, if properly managed, 
be kept in bloom from the beginning of November 
till the end of May, or during the entire period that 
no Roses are obtainable from the open ground, al- 
though, as before stated, there may be but very few 
blooms to be had during January and February. 

In order to make this method of growing Roses 
a complete success, a house should be specially 
built. A span-roof house running north and south 
will be best, as the sunshine will then be more 
equally distributed over it. The walls on the east 






and west sides should be about three feet high, and 
the eaves be raised only about a foot above them 
so as to admit as much light to the plants as possible. 
The roof should be constructed so that the lights 
between the main rafters can be entirely removed 
during the summer months. This is very important, 
for without some such arrangement the growth of the 
plants during that season will be arrested by the hot 
and dry atmosphere within the house, and red spider 
will with difficulty be kept in check. The beds down 
each side should be three feet six inches wide so 
as to allow of two rows of plants ; the stronger- 
growing varieties being placed at the back. If the 
house be sufficiently wide to allow of a central bed 
of the same width as the two side beds, this might 
with advantage be planted with half standards. Venti- 
lators should be inserted in the centre of each light 
near the ridge so that air may be admitted on either 
side of the house, as circumstances may direct, and to 
the extent required. 

The spaces allotted for the beds should be cleared 
out to the depth of two feet eight inches. In the 
bottom should be placed a layer of stones six inches 
deep, and above this a layer of gravel or other small 
stones to the depth of another two inches in order 
to ensure perfect drainage. The spaces should then 
be filled up with the compost, consisting of six parts 
turfy loam rather finely chopped, two parts well- 
decayed manure, one part leaf mould, and the re- 
maining part half-inch bones and coarse sand in 
tqral quantities. The inner walls supporting the 


beds need not be more than half a brick thick. The 
Roses should be planted two feet six inches apart, and 
in the same way as recommended for outside plant- 
ing (p. 96). It is advisable to begin with young 
plants from the open ground, either procured from 
the Rose nurseries early in November, or taken up 
in that month from the Rose garden. Any kinds 
of Roses can be grown in such a Rose house, but 
Teas are especially recommended on account of 
their naturally perpetual flowering habit, and also 
because, more than any other class of Rose, they 
appreciate the shelter from all adverse weather con- 
ditions. Very little warmth should be given, and 
when young leaves appear at the ends of the shoots 
these shoots should be cut back half their length. 
The first winter must necessarily be a barren one, 
but there may be a moderate number of small blooms 
in the spring. The same routine of treatment advised 
for pot Roses under glass should throughout their 
growth be adopted (see p. 135). In the summer 
the lights should be entirely removed from the roof, 
so that the plants, during the hottest part of the year, 
may be virtually growing in the open air. At the 
end of that season, if the plants have received due 
attention as to watering, &c., they should have made 
good growth. In September the lights should be 
replaced on the roof, but ample ventilation should 
be given, and water entirely withheld, in order to 
give the plants as far as possible a period of rest. 
In October they will require pruning — that is to say, 
some of the weak and crowded shoots should be 


removed, and the remainder shortened back about 
one-third of their length. After a week the plants 
should be well watered with clear water and syringed 
every morning, the floor of the house at the same 
time being freely wetted. Should the nights a little 
later prove cold, some fire heat should be given, 
but only enough to keep the plants slowly growing. 
On all bright days the top ventilators may be opened 
on the side opposite to that quarter from which the 
wind happens to be blowing. On the appearance of 
the flower-buds, very weak liquid manure should be 
given liberally once a fortnight. 

As the weather becomes colder more heat will 
have to be given, but the temperature should not 
be allowed to rise above sixty degrees in the day- 
time or to fall lower than forty-five degrees at night. 
In this way a fair number of flowers may be obtained 
until about Christmas, and a flower here and there 
until March. If the plants be again lightly pruned in 
January, with the help of increasing sunshine there 
will be a goodly number until nearly June. The lights 
must once more be taken from the roof and the same 
routine as before followed in preparation for the third 
year's crop of flowers, in the late autumn, winter and 

Climbing Roses under Glass. — Nothing has been 
before said about climbing Roses. They are un- 
suitable for any house specially devoted to Roses, 
because they shut out so much of that sunlight from 
the other Roses which is so needful for their welfare 
throughout the winter and early spring months. 


These rampant varieties should therefore be grown 
in other houses where their presence will be less 
objectionable. Climbing Roses, whether dwarf plants 
or on standards, are best planted outside the green- 
house in a well-cultivated and manured border and 
their leading shoots brought into it and trained up 
the roof. They should be pruned after they have 
flowered, and each year a good deal of the older 
wood removed in order to make room for the shoots 
which will be formed during the current year, and 
thus enable them to become well ripened before the 
winter sets in. As a protection against injury from 
frost, hay-bands may with advantage be wound round 
the stocks of the standards outside the house early 
in December, and some bracken or other dry and 
light material placed over the exposed portion of 
the dwarf plants. 



Abbreviations, &c., used in the Following Lists 

H.C. Hybrid China. 
H.N. Hybrid Noisette. 
H.P. Hybrid Perpetual. 

A. Autumn-flowering. Roses 

which flower in the summer, and 

again, with more or less freedom, 

in the autumn. H.T. Hybrid Tea. 

S. Summer-flowering. Roses 1 N. Noisette. 

which only flower once within a Pom. Pompon. 

year. ! Sin. Single-flowered. 

CI. Poly. Climbing Polyantha. ; 

By ** exhibition Roses" is meant those varieties 
which are sufficiently large and perfect in form to be 
staged as separate blooms in boxes at the exhibitions. 
By "garden Roses" is meant all other varieties 
which are never so exhibited — except in those cases 
where an exhibition Rose is described as good both 
for exhibition and for garden decoration. 


In the following selections the varieties have been 
arranged, under their different colours, according to 
the average number of times they were staged in the 
prize stands at the recent leading exhibitions of the 
National Rose Society. 



White and Cream 

Bessie Brown (H.T.). 
Kaiserin Augusta Victoria 

Marchioness of Londonderry. 
Margaret Dickson, 
White Lady (H.T.). 

N.B. — Mildred Grant (H.T.) ; a lovely new creamy white 
variety; it should be included in every exhibitor's collection, 
however small. 

Pink and Pale Rose 

Mrs. John Laing. 
Caroline Testout (H.T.). 
Mrs. W. J. Grant (H.T.). 
Her Majesty. 

Mrs. R. G. Sharman-Craw- 

La France (H.T.). 
Madame Gabriel Luizet. 

Killarney (H.T.). 
Baroness Rothschild. 

Medium Red and Rose 

Ulrich Brunner. 
Marquise Litta (H.T.) 
Gustave Piganeau. 
Suzanne M. Rodocanachi. 
Francois Michelon. 

Helen Keller. 
Dupuy Jamain. 
Etienne Levet. 
Tom Wood. 
Duchesse de Morny. 


Comte de Raimbaud. 
General Jacqueminot. 
Duke of Edinburgh. 
Dr. Andry. 
E. Y. Teas. 
Duchess of Bedford. 

A. K. Williams. 
Captain Hayward. 
Alfred Colomb. 
Marie Baumann. 
Fisher Holmes. 
Victor Hugo. 

N.B. — The latest addition in this colour is Ben Cant, a 
most promising new Hybrid Perpetual. 


Horace Vernet. 
Earl of Dufferin. 
Prince Arthur. 
Charles Lefebvre. 

Dark Crimson 

Duke of Wellington. 
Louis Van Houtte. 
Xavier Olibo. 

White and Cream 

White Maman Cochet. 
The Bride. 
Innocente Pirola. 
Souvenir de S. A. Prince. 

Muriel Grahame. 
Souvenir d'Elise Vardon. 

Pink and Pale Rose 

Maman Cochet. 

Catherine Mermet. 

Madame Cusin. 


Mrs. Edward Mawley. 

Souvenir d'un Ami. 
Madame de Watteville. 
Ernest Metz. 

Yellow, Buff, and Orange 

Comtesse de Nadaillac. I Marie Van Houtte. 

Madame Hoste. Caroline Kuster (N.). 

Marechal Niel (N.). Anna Olivier. 

N.B. — Lady Roberts, a beautiful salmon pink sport from 
Anna Olivier, judging by the blooms recently exhibited, 
promises to be a charming addition to the Tea and Noisette 


In the following list the varieties have been arranged 
according to the number of times they were staged in 
the prize stands at the Exhibition held last year in the 


Temple Gardens, which was an unusually large and repre- 
sentative one : — 

Gustave Rdgis (H.T.). 
Marquise de Salisbury (H.T.). 
WilliamAUen Richardson (N .) 
Madame Pernet Ducher 

Rosa macrantha (Sin.). 
Turner's Crimson Rambler 

(CI. Poly.). 
Camoens (H.T.). 
Madame Ch^dane Guinois- 

seau (T.). 
Bardou Job (H.T.). 
Alister Stella Gray (N.). 
LTd^al (N.). 
Madame Falcot (T.). 
Reine Olga de Wurtemberg 

Souvenir de Catherine Guillot 

Paul's Carmine Pillar (Sin.). 

The Garland (H.C.). 
Ciaire Jacquier (CI. Poly.). 
Anne of Geierstein (Sweet- 
Laurette Messimy (C). 
Ma Capucine (T.). 
Mignonette (Pom.). 
Papillon (T.). 
Paul's Single White (Sin.). 
Crested Moss (Moss). 
Homere (T.). 
Perle d'Or (Pom.). 
Rosa inoschata alba (Sin.). 
Rosa Mundi (Damask). 
Brenda (Sweet-brier). 
Madame Pierre Cochet (T.). 
Meg Merrilies (Sweet-brier). 
Red Damask (Damask). 
Rosa himalayaca (Sin.). 
Rosa lucida plena. 


Anna Olivier (T.). 
Baronoss Rothschild (H.P.) 
Bridesmaid (T.). 
Captain Hay ward (H.P.). 
Catherine Mermet (T.). 
Caroline Testout (H.T.). 
General Jacqueminot (H.P.). 
Innocente Pirola (T.). 
La France (H.T.). 
Liberty (H.T.). 
Madame de Watteville (T.). 
Madame Hoste (T.). 
Madame Lambard (T.). 
Marie Van Houite (T.). 
Merveille de Lyon (H.P.). 

Mrs. John Laing (H.P). 

Mrs. R. G. Sharman - Craw- 
ford (H.P). 

Mrs. W. J. Grant (H.T.). 

Niphetos (T.). 

Perle des Jardins (T.). 

Souvenir de S. A. Prince 

Souvenir d'un Ami (T.). 

S. M. Rodocanachi (H.P.). 

Sunrise (T.). 

The Bride (T.). 

Uhich Brunner (H.P.). 

Viscountess Folkestone 



Climbing Niphetos (T.). Mar^chal Niel (N.). 

Climbing Perle des Jardins ■ Turner's Crimson Rambler 

(T.). I (CI. Poly.). 

Fortune's Yellow (N.). ! William AllenRichardson(N.). 

In the following list will be found, alphabetically arranged, 
a selection from the choicest varieties of Roses now in culti- 
vation. The varieties marked with an asterisk make good 
standards : — 
Aimee Vibert (N.). — Pure white ; late flowering ; very vigorous 

and almost evergreen. Flowers in clusters. (A.) 
A. K. Williams (H.P.). — Carmine; early flowering and of 

moderate growth. One of the most perfect in form of 

all exhibition Roses. (A.) 
* Alfred Colofnb (H.P.). — Carmine; late flowering ; vigorous, 

and fragrant. A fine exhibition variety. (A.) 
Alister Stella Gray (N.). — Pale yellow; a good climbing 

Rose ; flowers in clusters. Flowers again in the autumn. 

Atina Olivier (T.). — Pale buff; vigorous; charming under 

glass, but the flowers in the open ground are easily 

damaged by wet. (A.) 
Antoine Rivoire (H.T.). — Vigorous; a good cream-coloured 

garden Rose. (A.) 
Augustine Guinoisseau (H.T.). — Blush white; vigorous; very 

free flowering, known as the " White La France," but the 

flowers are neither as large nor as full as La France. (A.) 
Austrian Copper (Austrian Brier). — Coppery red inside of 

petal, and old gold outside ; vigorous. The most beautiful 

of all single-flowered Roses. (S.) 
Austrian Yellow (Austrian Brier). — Yellow; vigorous. Like 

the foregoing, except as regards colour. (S.) 
Bardou Job (H.T). — Crimson ; vigorous ; bears large beauti- 
fully shaded flowers which are almost single. (A.) 


Baroness Rothschild (H.P.). — Pink; upright growth; late 
flowering and good in colour. Scentless. (A.) 

Beaute Inconstante (N.). — Metallic red shaded yellow; vigo- 
rous. Distinct and charming in colour, but variable in 
this respect, as its name implies. (A.) 

Beauty of Waltham (H.P.). — Crimson. A useful exhibition 
Rose. (A.) 

Ben Ca«/(H.P.). — Crimson; vigorous. A new and welcome 
addition to the crimson exhibition Roses. (A.) 

Bennetfs Seedlings or Thoresbyana (Ayrshire). — White ; one 
of the very best and hardiest summer-flowering climbing 
Roses. Blooms in clusters. (S.) 

Bessie Broivn (H.T.). — Creamy white ; vigorous. Although 
only sent out in 1899 '^'^ ^^^ ^'^^'^ y^^^ ^^ be seen in nearly 
every exhibition stand. The first of the really good 
whites among the H.P.'s and H.T.'s. (A.) 

Bouquet d'Or (T.). — Dark yellow; very vigorous. The best 
of the Gloire de Dijon race in flower and habit of 
growth ; but not so free-flowering as Gloire de Dijon. 
Fragrant. (A.) 

Bridesmaid (T.).— Pink ; moderately vigorous. A deep- 
coloured sport from Catherine Mermet, one of the best 
exhibition Teas. (A.) 

Camoens (H.T.). — Rose ; vigorous. A pretty free-flowering 
garden Rose. (A.) 

Captain Hayward (H.P.). — Crimson ; vigorous. One of the 
best crimson Roses for exhibition ; not very full, but has 
fine petals of great substance. (A.) 

Caroline Testout (H.T.). — Pink ; vigorous. Takes a high 
position both as an exhibition and garden Rose. Frag- 
rant. (A.) 

Catherine Mermet (T.). — Pale pink ; moderately vigorous. 
One of the best exhibition Teas, and, like nearly all the 
sports from it, has the most perfectly formed flowers of 
all the Teas. (A.) 


Cecile Brunner (Pom.). — Pink ; dwarf. The best of the pink 

Pompons. (A.) 
Charles Lefhbvre (H.P.). — Dark crimson; vigorous. An old 

exhibition Rose, which has never been equalled in its 

particular form and colour; few Roses are as beautiful 

when it is at its best. Fragrant. (A.) 
Claire Jacquier (CI. Poly.). — Nankeen yellow ; a remarkably 

vigorous summer-flowering climber. Flowers in clusters. 

Not quite hardy. (S. ) 
Clara Watson (H.T). — Rosy cream ; vigorous. A free-flower- 
ing garden Rose. (A.) 
Common or Old Moss (Moss). — Pink ; vigorous ; one of the 

oldest Roses grown, but still the best of all the Mosses. 

Fragrant. (S.) 
Common Provence or Cabbage Rose (Provence). — Pink ; 

moderately vigorous ; also one of our oldest Roses, but 

still unequalled in its class. (S.) 
Comjnon Sweet-brier (Sweet - brier). — Pale pink ; vigorous, 

foliage deliciously fragrant. (S.) 
Common Monthly or Old Blush (China). — Pink ; vigorous. 

The most perpetual flowering of all Roses. (A.) 
Co7nte de Raimbaud{¥{.V.). — Crimson; vigorous, a fine crimson 

Rose for exhibition. (A.) 
Comtesse de Nadaillac (T.). — Peach shaded apricot; growth 

moderate ; grand exhibition Tea Rose. When at its 

best no Tea Rose is as beautiful. Not an easy Rose to 

grow. (A.) 
Cramoisi Supirieur (China). — Crimson ; moderately vigorous. 

The best of the crimson Chinas. (A.) 
Dr. Andry (H.P.). — Crimson; vigorous; a strong -growing 

exhibition and garden Rose. (A.) 
Dr. Grill (T.). — Pale rosy fawn ; moderately vigorous. A 

distinct and free-flowering garden Rose. (A.) 
* Duke of Edinburgh {Yi.V.). — Scarlet crimson; vigorous. A 

bright and strong-growing exhibition and garden Rose. (A.) 


Felicite-Perpetue (Evergreen). — Creamy white. One of the 
best white summer-flowering climbing Roses. Blooms 
in clusters of rosette-shaped flowers. (S.) 

Fellenberg (China). — Crimson ; vigorous ; a good crimson in 
this free-flowering section. (A.) 

* Fisher Holmes {}1.V .). — Crimson; vigorous. A good exhibi- 

tion and garden Rose. (A.) 

* General Jacqueminot (H.P.). — Crimson ; vigorous ; one of 

the oldest of the H.P.'s. An excellent exhibition and 
garden Rose. Fragrant. (A.) 

'''Gloire de Dijon (T.). — Buff. The most free-flowering of all 
climbing Roses, and for general usefulness has no equal. 
Fragrant. (A.) 

Gloire Lyonnaise (H.T.). — Lemon white ; vigorous upright 
habit. A good and distinct garden Rose. (A.) 

Gloire des Polyaniha (Pom.). — Rose; dwarf; an excellent 
rose-coloured Pompon. (A.) 

G. Nabonnand (T.). — Pale flesh; vigorous; one of the best 
garden Roses of its colour. (A.) 

Grilss an Teplitz (H.T.). — Crimson; vigorous. Unequalled 
as a free-flowering crimson garden Rose ; a fine acquisi- 
tion. (A.) 

Gustave Piganeau (H.P.). — Shaded carmine; growth moderate ; 
a fine and trustworthy exhibition Rose ; but by no means 
an easy Rose to grow in many soils. (A.) 

Guslave Pegis (H.T.). — Nankeen yellow ; vigorous. The best 
and most vigorous of the yellow garden Roses. (A.) 

Harrisonii (Austrian Brier). — Yellow; vigorous. A very 
pretty summer-flowering garden Rose. (S.) 

Her Majesty (H.P.). — Pale rose; vigorous upright habit. 
Flowers very large. A very fine late-flowering exhibi- 
tion Rose. It is very subject to mildew and is scent- 
less. (A.) 

Horace Vernet (H.P.). — Dark crimson ; growth moderate. 
The most beautiful dark exhibition Rose in cultivation. 
By no means an easy Rose to grow in many localities. 


In some gardens it grows as vigorously as other H.P.'s, 

but in most places it makes but very poor growth. (A.) 
Innocente Pirola (T.). — Creamy white. A fine exhibition Tea, 

rather subject to mildew. (A.) 
Janefs Fride (Sweet-brier). — White, tipped crimson; vigorous. 

Almost single-flowered. One of the best of the hybrid 

Sweet-briers. (S.) 
* Kaiserin Augusta Victoria (^JY.'). — Cream; vigorous. One of 

the best of the white, or nearly white, exhibition H.T.'s. 

There is a climbing variety of this Rose which promises 

to be a great acquisition. (A.) 
Killarney (H.T.). — Pale pink; vigorous; already a great 

favourite. A good Rose for exhibition, and still more 

valuable for garden decoration. (A.) 
Lady Penzance (Sweet-brier). — Coppery yellow. The most 

charming of all the hybrid Sweet-briers. It is said to 

be a cross between the common Sweet-brier and Austrian 

Copper. (S.) 
'''LaFrancei^.^.). — Pale rose; vigorous. A hardy and very free- 
flowering exhibition and garden Rose. Fragrant. (A.) 
*Laurette Messimy (China). — Rose ; vigorous. A lovely semi- 
double continuous-flowering garden Rose. (A.) 
L Ideal (N.). — Metallic red ; vigorous. A strong-growing 

garden Rose. Distinct and charming in colour, (A.) 
Longworth jRambkr (H.T.). — Crimson. The best of all the 

red climbing Roses on account of its freedom of flowering 

in the antumn. (A.) 
Ma Capucine (T.). — Bronzy yellow, shaded red; of moderate 

growth. The best of all the button-hole Roses ; quite 

distinct in colour. (A.) 
Madame Abel Chatenay (H.T.).— Salmon pink; vigorous. 

The best garden Rose in its colour. (A.) 
Madame Alfred Carriere (H.N.). — White. The best white 

climbing Rose. (A.) 
Madame Anna Marie de Montravel (Pom.). — Dwarf. The 

best of the white Pompons. (A.) 


Madame Chcdane Gninoisseau (T.). — Yellow; moderately 
vigorous. A fine button-hole Rose. (A.) 

Madame Cusin (T.). — Pale rose; upright growth. A good 
exhibition Tea; rather tender. (A.) 

Madame de Watteville (T.). — Cream-edged rose ; vigorous. A 
very distinct and pretty exhibition Tea ; rather tender. (A.) 

Madame Eugene Resal (China). — Coppery rose; vigorous. 
Much like Laurette Messimy, but deeper in colour. (A.) 

Madame Gabriel Luizet (H.P.). — Pink; vigorous. An ex- 
cellent early-flowering exhibition Rose. It seldom flowers 
in the autumn. (S.) 

Madame Hoste (T.). — Lemon yellow; vigorous. A fine ex- 
hibition and garden Rose. (A.) 

Madajne Jules Grolez (H.T.). — Clear rose; vigorous. A very 
distinct and free-flowering garden Rose. (A.) 

Madame Lambard (T.). — Salmon shaded rose; vigorous. A 
good and continuous-flowering garden Tea. Very vari- 
able in colour. (A.) 

"^Maman Cocheti^,). — Pale pink; vigorous. A fine addition 
to the exhibition and garden Teas. (A.) 

Marchioness of Londonderry (H.P.). — Ivory white ; vigorous 
erect growth. Large petals of great substance. A good 
exhibition Rose. Colour too often a very unpleasant 
shade of white. (A.) 

Markhal Niel (N.). — Golden yellow; very vigorous. The 
finest yellow Rose in cultivation. Fragrant. Very subject 
to canker. (A.) 

Marie Baumann (H.P.). — Soft carmine -red; moderately 
vigorous. A good exhibition Rose. Fragrant. (A.) 

* Marie Van Houtte (T.). — Lemon yellow edged rose ; vigorous. 
A charming exhibition and garden Tea of good growth. (A.) 

"^Marquise Litta (H.T.). — Carmine rose ; vigorous. A fine and 

distinct early-flowering exhibition and garden Rose. (A.) 

Meg Merrilies (Sweet-brier). — Crimson ; very vigorous. One 

of the best of the Penzance Sweet-briers. (S.) 
Mildred Grant i^r^.). — White; vigorous. This variety promises 


to be one of the most beautiful white Roses in the 
Hybrid Tea section ever raised, and consequently will be 
a great acquisition to the exhibitor. (A.) 

Mrs. Bosanqnet (China). — Pale flesh ; vigorous ; very free- 
flowering. (A.) 

Mrs. Edward Mawley (T.). — Pink, tinted carmine ; moderately 
vigorous ; very free-flowering. Although only sent out 
in 1899 it has already taken a high position among the 
exhibition Teas. (A.) 

* Mrs. John Lai?ig {'R.V.). — Rosy pink; vigorous. Few Roses 

have so many good qualities. It is hardy, of good 
growth, and free-flowering, and almost as good in the 
garden as in the show. (A.) 

*Mrs.R. G.Sharman-Crawford {Yi.'P.). — Rosy pink. Beautiful 
in colour, and a fine early-flowering exhibition and 
garden Rose. (A.) 

Mrs.W.J. Gran f {H..T.). — Rosy pink ; moderately vigorous ; 
distinct in form and colour, and one of the best of our 
exhibition Roses. There is a climbing variety of this 
Rose which promises to be a great acquisition to the 
dwarf climbers. (A.) 

Muriel Grahame (T.). — Pale cream; moderately vigorous. 
Has all the good qualities as an exhibition Tea of the fine 
variety, Catherine Mermet, from which it sported. (A.) 

PauPs Carmine Pillar (Sin.). — Carmine ; very vigorous. The 
most beautiful red, climbing, single-flowered Rose that 
has yet been raised. (S.) 

Perle des Rouges (Pom.). — Crimson ; dwarf. The best of the 
red Pompons. (A.) 

Persian Yellow (Austrian Brier). — Golden yellow; vigorous. 
There is no other Rose in cultivation of the same bright 
shade of yellow. It does not succeed in all localities, 
and is the first Rose to feel the effects of a smoke-laden 
atmosphere. (S.) 

* Prince Arthur (H.P.). — Shaded crimson ; vigorous. A good 

exhibition and garden Rose. (A.) 


Prince Cnfnille de. Roha7i (H.P.). — Crimson maroon; vigo- 
rous. The best dark crimson Rose for garden decora- 
tion. (A.) 

Reine Marie Henridte (H.T.). — Cherry carmine. A valuable 
red climbing Rose on account of its autumn-flowering 
qualities. (A.) 

Rei7ie Olga de Wurtetnberg (H.T.). — Crimson. Almost a 
summer-flowering climbing Rose, as it yields so few 
blooms in the autumn. There is no red climber to equal 
it in colour. (S.) 

Reve d^Or (N.). — Buff yellow. A very vigorous, free-flower- 
ing climber. Not quite hardy. (A.) 

Rosa alpina (Sin.). — Rose; vigorous. Interesting on account 
of its being thornless, and also as the earliest of all Roses 
to bloom. (S.) 

Rosa viacrantha (Sin.). — Flesh. One of the best of the 
single-flowered climbers. Rather subject to mildew. 

Rosa nioschata = Brunoni (Sin.). — White; a vigorous climb- 
ing Rose, producing clusters of small white flowers. 

Rosa multiflora (Sin.), also known as Rosa polyantha sifjiplex 
(single-flowered). — White; a vigorous climber, producing 
large bunches of tiny white flowers. Rosa 77iultiflora 
grandiflora is of similar growth, but the individual 
flowers are much larger. (S.) 

Rosa Mundi (Gallica). — Red, striped white ; moderately vigo- 
rous. The best of the so-called York and Lancaster 
Roses. (S.) 

Rosa rubrifolia (Sin.). — Rose ; very vigorous. The flowers 
are insignificant, but the foliage is quite distinct from 
that of all other Roses, being of a peculiar purplish-red 
shade. (S.) 

Rosa sinica Anetnone (single-flowered). — Pink shaded Rose; 
vigorous. Both the large single flowers and delicate 
glossy fohage are alike beautiful. (S.) 


Souvenir d' Elise Vardon (T.). — Cream; growth moderate. A 
fine exhibition Tea, but a difficult Rose to cultivate on 
account of its weak growth. (A.) 

Souvenir de Catherine Giiillot (T.). — Growth moderate. A 
distinct and charming button-hole Rose. A vigorous- 
growing Rose of the same unique colour would be a great 
acquisition. (A.) 

Souvenir de la Malmaison (Bourbon). — Blush white ; vigorous. 
One of the oldest Roses grown. A hardy and free- 
flowering garden Rose. (A.) 

Souvenir de S. A. Prince (T.). — White; vigorous. A good 
white exhibition and garden Tea. (A.) 

Souvenir du President Carnot (H.T.). — White; vigorous. A 
very free-flowering garden Rose. (A.) 

Stanwell Perpetual (Scotch). — Pale blush. One of the earliest 
and latest garden Roses to flower. Fragrant. (A.) 

* Suzanne M. Rodocaiiachi (H.P.). — Glowing rose; vigorous. 

A lovely exhibition and garden Rose. (A.) 
The Bride (T.). — White ; moderately vigorous. Has all the 

good qualities as an exhibition Rose of the fine variety, 

Catherine Mermet, from which it sported. (A.) 
The Garland (H.C.). — Blush. A very old summer-flowering 

climber of distinct habit and foliage. (S.) 
Turner's Crimson Rambler (CI. Poly.). — Crimson. A remaric- 

ably vigorous climber; flowers freely in clusters. Few 

climbing Roses in recent years have been so largely 

grown. (S.) 
*Ulrich Brunner (H.P.). — Cherry red. One of the most 

vigorous of all the H.P.'s. Fine both as an exhibition and 

garden Rose. (A.) 
Victor Hugo (H.P.). — Bright crimson; moderately vigorous. 

The brightest crimson of all the exhibition H.P.'s. (A.) 

* Viscountess Folkestone {H.T,). — Creamy white ; vigorous ; free- 

flowering. The most charming white, or nearly white, 
garden Rose. (A.) 



White Banksian and Yelloiv Batiksian. — Both are very old 
climbing Roses, bearing clusters of small double flowers. 
Being tender they will only thrive out-of-doors in warm 
and sheltered situations. (S.) 

* White Maman Cochet (T.). — White; vigorous. The best 

exhibition and garden Tea Rose of recent introduc- 
tion. (A.) 

White Pet (China). — White ; vigorous. May be best described 
as a dwarf-growing and free-flowering F'elicite-Perpetue. 

Wichuriana (S\n.). — White; very vigorous. A new type of 
Rose which has a trailing habit, and late in the summer 
bears a large number of small white flowers. The foliage 
is small and shining. (S.) 

* William Alkfi Richardson (N.). — Deep orange, with white 

edges. A most distinct and valuable climbing Rose. 
Early in the season the flowers often come almost 
white. (A.) 

A good many charming Roses are unavoidably 
omitted from the above list, but sufficient have been 
mentioned to show the wealth of really good varieties 
for all purposes now available. 


Abbreviations, 149 
Aimee Vibert, 47, 55) 57 
Anna Alexieff, 5 1 
Aphis, 117 ; on pot Roses, 138 
Arbours, 45 
Arches of Roses, 45 
Arranging Roses in water, 74 
Assorting cut Roses, 75, 76 
Austrian Briers, 24, 59 ; pruning, 

Ayrshires, 21, 51, 53, yo, 75 ; 

as standards, 16 

Back-yards, Roses in, 65 

Banksian Roses, 17, 30, 78 ; 
pruning, 105 

Beds of Roses under glass, 144 

Bennett's Seedling, 21, 54 

Blairii No. 2, 37 

Botanical names wrongly used, 6 

Boursault, 16, 20, 37 

Boxes for showing Roses, 127 

Brier Roses, 22, 23 

Brier stocks, 107 

Budding standards, 109 ; bud- 
ding dwarf stocks, no 

Burnet Rose, 22, 23 

Cabbage Rose, 12, 13, 19 
Caterpillars, 116 ; on pot Roses, 

Celeste, 16, 20 

China Rose, 18, 20 ; dwarf 

kinds, 26 ; with lavender, 17 
Cinnamon Rose, 14, 19 
Climbing Roses, 21 ; on pergola, 

46 ; on hedges, 50 ; under 

glass, 147 
Cluster Roses, 57 
Compost for pot Roses, 140 
Cottage Maid, 14, 19 
Coupe d'Hebe, 18, 20 
Cramoisi Superieur, 18, 20, 8r, 

Crimson Rambler, 5, 46, 62 
Cuckoo-spit, 117 
Cut Roses, 73 
Cutting blooms of show Roses, 

Cuttings of Roses, 34, in 

Damask, 13, 14, 19 
De la Grifferaie stock, 33, 83 
Disbudding show Roses, 126 
Drought, 115 

Dundee Rambler, 21, 47, 53, 54 

Dwarf or Pompon Roses, 12, 

25 ; list of, 26 ; their use, 26 

Emilie Plantier, 19, 20 
Enemies of the Rose, 113 
Exhibiting Roses, 121 

F^licit^-Perpetue, 21, 54 




Flora, 21 

Forcing Roses, 143 
Fortune's Yellow, 18, 20 
Fountains of Roses, 53 
Free-growing Roses, 53 ; in 
trees, 54, 71 ; in wood edge, 

Free-growing Roses, pruning, 

Frosts, protection from, 114 
Fungoid pests, 118 

Garden Roses, new, 3 ; prun- 
ing, 104 ; exhibiting, 132 
Gardens, Rose, 66 et seq. 
Garland Rose, 21 
Garlands on chains, 49, 53, 54, 

Greenfly, 117 
Gi-ubs, 116, 117 ; on pot Roses, 


Hardiness of R. rugosa, 8 

Hebe's Lip, 14 

Hedges, growing Roses in, 15 ; 

of Roses, 48 
Hedges, Roses suitable for, 5 1 
Himalayan Roses, 7 
Houses, Roses on, 59 
Hybrid Perpetuals, the oldest, 

13 ; origin of, 14, 85 
Hybrid Perpetuals, pruning, 

Hybrid Teas, 84 ; pruning, 103 

Insect pests, 115, 123; on 
pot Roses, 138 

Labels, 98 

Lady Emily Peel, 19, 20 

Liquid manure for pot Roses, 

List, alphabetical, of best Roses 

in cultivation, 153 et seq. 
List of best climbing Roses, 

List of Garden or Decorative 

Roses, 151 ; Roses for under 

glass, 152 
List of Show Roses, 149 ; H.P. 

and H.T., 150; Teas and 

Noisettes, 151 
Lord Penzance, 9 

Madame Alfred Carri^re, 75 
Madame Plantier, 20, 51 
Maiden's Blush, 16, 20 
Manetti stock, 33, 107 
Manuring Rose-beds, 93 ; show 

Roses, 125 
Mildew, 118 ; on pot Roses, 139 
Moss Rose, 12, 19 
Mulching, 126 
Musk Roses, 21 

New garden Roses, list of, 10, 

Noisettes, pruning, 103 

Old garden Roses, 12 ; list of, 


Own root Roses, 33 ; in poor 
soils, 34 

Pegging down Roses, 106 
Pergola, 40 ; with brick piers, 

40, 42 ; of wood, 43 ; with 

hanging garlands, 44 
Pillar Roses, 18, 36 ; pruning, 

104 ; list of, 38, 39 ; planting, 




Planting roses, 91 et seq. ; show 

Roses, 122 
Pompons, 6, 19, 25 ; list of, 

26, 27 
Portland Rose, 14, 20 
Posts, tarring ends, 50 
Pot Roses, 135 
Preparation of Rose-beds, 92 
Propagation, 107 
Protection from frost, 114 
Provence Rose, 12, 13, 19 
Provins, 12, 13, 19 
Pruning free Roses on hedges, 

Pruning Roses, 99-106 ; show 
Roses, 122 

Red Rust, 119 

Red Spider, 118 ; on pot Roses, 


Reine Blanche, 14 

Repotting Roses in pots, 140 

Riviera, Roses on the, 'j'j 

Rock work, Roses for, 23 

Rosa Mundi, 14, 19 

R. alda, 15, 20, 29, 47 

R. alpina, 16, 17, 20, 29 

R. altaica, 22, 29 

R. arvensis, 17, 20, 30 

R. Banksice^ 17, 30, 78 ; prun- 
ing, IDS 

R. Bru}ioiii, 5, 31, 67 

R. centifolia, 12, 13, 19, 29 

R. cinnavwmea^ 14, 19, 30 

R. damascena^ 19, 30 

R. Fortimei^ 20, 79 

R. galltca, 12, 13, 14, 19, 29, 30 ; 
pruning, 105 

R. indica, 20, 31, 88 

R. lucida, 14, 20, 31, 67 

R. lutea, 24, 31 

R. mult (flora, 5, 6, 31, 55 ; 
pruning, 104 

R. inuscosa, 21 

A', rttbigifiosa, 32 

A', riigosa, 29, 32 ; hybrids of, 
8 ; pruning, 105 

A', spi/iosissima, 20, 22, 23, 32 

R. wicJiuriana, 7, 32, 67 ; hy- 
brids of, 8 

Rose d'Amour, 1 5, 20 

Rose gardens, 66 et seq. 

Rosemary with China Rose, 

Roses as cut flowers, 73 

Roses under glass, 134 

Scotch Brier, 20, 22 ; pruning, 
105 ; on rockwork, 23 

Scotch Brier, their winter 
beauty, 23 ; on banks, 23 

Screens of Roses, 48 

Seedling Brier stocks, 107 

Shading show Roses, 127 

Soil for Rose-beds, 92 

Species as garden Roses, 9, 28 ; 
list of, 29, 30, 31 

Staking Roses, 97 

Stanwell Perpetual, 24 

Stocks for Roses, 107 ; for stan- 
dards, 108 

Summer-house, ugly, made 
beautiful, 62 

Summer treatment of pot Roses, 

Sweet-briers, 9, 15, 20, 55 ; prun- 
ing, 105 

Tea Roses, cut, 73 ; pruning of, 

Tender Roses, 59 


Thinning show Roses, 124 

Thrips, 118 

Trailing habit of R. wichn- 

riana, 7 
Training rambling Roses into 

trees, 55, 57,64, 71 
Trellises, 48, 63 
Trenching Rose-beds, 93 
Tubes for show Roses, 128 


! Umbrella training, 37 
Velvet Rose, 14 

Walls, Roses on, 57 ; Roses 

trained over, 60 
Whitsuntide Rose, 14 

York and Lancaster, 14, 19 


JeKyll, Gertrude/Roses for English garde 

3 5185 00042 5452